Guide to Vitamins: what to drink and what to throw away
This is a very simple piece of advice: eat vegetables, exercise and, of course, take vitamins. Or do not take. Decades of research and did not offer substantial evidence that vitamins and supplements brought some tangible benefits. Moreover, recent studies tend to the opposite opinion, as revealed that some vitamins can be harmful. Certain types of vitamins are correlated with an increased likelihood of developing certain types of cancer, while others - with an increase in the risk of stone formation in the kidneys.
What vitamins did not take, and what are not? Recent studies suggest the following:
Multivitamins: none; everything you need can be obtained at the expense of a balanced diet
For decades it was assumed that taking multivitamins is playing a vital role in maintaining health. Vitamin C - to "support the immune system," Vitamin A - for the protection of, vitamin B - for tone. All this is contained in the food you eat. Moreover, according to the research, an overabundance of these vitamins can cause harm. The study was conducted in 2011, which was attended by about 39 000 women over 25 years. It was found that among those who for a long time took multivitamins, the risk of mortality was significantly higher than in those who did not accept.
Vitamin D: yes; it keeps bones strong and hard to get food
Vitamin D is not found in most common foods, but it is a critical element that helps the body absorb calcium, due to which the bones retain firmness. Sunlight stimulates the production of vitamin D in the body, but in the winter to obtain enough sunlight problematic. Several recent studies have shown that people who every day take vitamin D, on average, live longer than those who do not accept.
Antioxidants: none; their overabundance find the cause of certain types of cancer, the same can instead eat berries
Vitamins A, C and E - are antioxidants that are found in many fruits, berries and vegetables, and they are credited with the ability to protect the body against cancer. However, research shows that antioxidants can be harmful if overdosed. Extensive long-term study among male smokers found that those who took vitamin A, are more likely to fall ill with lung cancer than those who did not accept. Overview of testing several different types of supplements with antioxidants, released in 2007, reads: "Reception of beta-carotene, vitamin A and vitamin E may increase mortality."
Vitamin C: none; he is unlikely to help with colds, and instead you can eat citrus
Fever over the C vitamin, which began with the hypothesis chemist Linus Pauling, launched in 1970, just fashion. Studies, one after another showed that vitamin C or very little effect, if any, does not affect the prevention of colds. In addition, huge doses - from 2 thousand milligrams or more - may increase the risk of kidney stones. Therefore it is better to obtain the necessary amount of vitamin C from food, such as strawberries.
Vitamin B3: no; it is found in salmon, tuna and beet
For many years, vitamin B3 touted as a cure for all diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and heart failure. However, recent studies have put an end to widespread recommendations of the substance. a large-scale study was conducted in 2014, which was attended by 25 thousand people with heart failure. It showed that long-term use of vitamin B3 to improve the level of "good" cholesterol in the blood is not reduced the number of heart attacks, strokes and deaths. Moreover, participants in the study who took the drug were more prone to infections, problems with the liver and internal bleeding than those who took a placebo.
Probiotics: none; science is not yet sufficiently developed in order to have any significant benefit, better eat yogurt
Probiotics - are expensive nutritional supplements, whose price may be more than one dollar per pill. But these same substances can be obtained naturally by eating yogurt and other fermented products. In 2012, the market for these supplements is estimated at 23, $ 1 billion. Their essence is simple: to support the trillions of bacteria living in the intestine, which, as we know, played a crucial role in the body's health. But to realize this idea in practice turned out to be much more difficult. While the effect of probiotics is unclear. Sometimes it helps, sometimes it does not. Therefore it is better to lean on dairy products, rather than on expensive tablets with questionable efficacy.
Zinc: yes; this is one of the few substances that can help speed up recovery from colds
Unlike vitamin C, which, according to studies, does not prevent or cure the common cold, zinc worth taking it. This mineral prevents reproduction of rhinoviruses that cause colds. In a study of 2011, which was attended by people newly ill with colds, scientists have observed for those who started taking zinc, and compared them with those who took a placebo. The subjects who took zinc, recovered quickly, and they were less severe complications.
Vitamin E: No; its overabundance increases the risk of developing certain types of cancer, moreover, it is present in sufficient quantities in spinach
Antioxidant vitamin E has become popular due to the alleged ability to protect against cancer. However, a large study conducted in 2011 among 36 000 men found that the risk of developing prostate cancer in fact turned out to be greater among those who took vitamin E, than among placebo. A 2005 study shows the connection of large doses of vitamin E with an increase in the risk of death. If you do not have enough vitamin E, do yourself a salad of spinach and discard pills.
Folic acid: yes; take it during pregnancy or if you wish to become pregnant
Folic acid - a B vitamin B, which the body uses to build new cells. The US National Institute of Health recommends that pregnant women or women wishing to become pregnant consume 400 micrograms of folic acid per day because their body needs more of this element during gestation. In addition, several large studies have shown that folic acid intake before and during pregnancy reduces the risk of neural tube defects, as well as serious and life-threatening birth defects of the brain and spinal cord and spine in children.