Domestic directors, whose value at the boundary
Andrei Tarkovsky's name is known to any advanced foreign audience. We remember the 10 other, not the most obvious, but no less important authors.
There is little doubt that the new film by Andrei Zvyagintsev's "Dislike" enter into the program of the 70th Cannes Film Festival. Rights to the paintings rental in most European countries have bought long before the premiere, the "blind" - the international success of "Leviathan" cemented his reputation as the most export Zvyagintsev Russian director. The visual sophistication, slowly and Spirituality allow foreigners to compare it with Tarkovsky (which, of course, it is easy to dispute, but now is not about that).
The list of internationally recognized Russian filmmakers known: in addition to the two Andreev, this is Herman Sokurov, Mikhalkov, Konchalovsky, recently - Serebrennikov, until recently - Lungin, from the very old masters - Eisenstein, Vertov, Barnet. However, foreign film enthusiasts revere not only them. Esquire was expanded list of wizards in the movie that the Old and New World are delighted not only (and not so) mysterious Russian soul, how much quirkiness and drive.
1. Aristakisyan Arthur (born in 1961)
To acquire the status of cult religious poet saint of poverty and asocial Aristakisyanu enough for two full-length films released with an almost ten-year hiatus - is "Palms" (1993) and "A Place on Earth" (2001). However, in his absolute genius filmmaker forced to believe already when he was a student at the Institute of Cinematography. (From 1988 to the 1993rd he studied at the Faculty of documentaries in the workshop operator Alexander Kochetkov). In the late 1990s, the institute still legends about the incredible Arthur. Igor Sadchikov, at that time vice-rector of VGIK, recalled that he came from Chisinau and eccentric young man was not allowed to just spend the day and spend the night right in the classroom (hostel young director could not stand), but there and fry the potatoes. "Palms" Aristakisyan shot among Chisinau homeless for five years, and the effect of "Places on Earth" is placed in the modern hippie commune. These films have traveled the world and now and then found in the repertoires of Cinematheque. About working with Aristakisyanom dreamed Carlos Reygadas, who was going to produce a Mexican film Arthur on a dangerous topic of child trafficking. The project was not carried out - as well as a low-budget documentary about the Indian girl with two faces on one head, and all the other projects. In a recent interview with the magazine "Cinema Art" Aristakisyan said: "Ideas - fully, but they do not suit me, because they all run the festival interesting movie, but nothing more. I would like to write some of the icon. " The director and the person who really fits the definition of a "difficult" deliberately refused to replicate the format of the festival. However, even dubious reputation recluse Aristakisyan sides: he teaches directing at the Moscow school of the new movie.
2. Alexei German Jr. (born in 1976)
Here, as they say, the name requires and helps: the attention of international festivals of the great son of Alexis Herman, was not afraid to do his father's profession, was guaranteed from the outset. Debut "The Last Train", immerses the viewer in a gloomy, dirty, coughing military hell in 2004 was in the "Horizons" of the 60th Venice Film Festival and received a special mention Luigi De Laurentiis Award (it is curious that in the same year, all the other main award Marco Bellocchio with the film "Hello, night", but won an unknown Russian rookie Zvyagintsev with talk of "The Return").
Pretty soon, Herman Jr., combining realistic to absurdities, sharp style of his father with a spectacular glamor, became a regular at the main Venice competition. In 2008, his "Paper Soldier" received the Silver Lion, but was not re-run (only the main prize winners get in reruns) - and some French films then almost cried because he missed the movie. I had to calm him down: "Oh Herman, you will certainly show in France." Last for today work Alexei - woven of dystopia novels "Under Electric Clouds" - in 2015 visited the Berlin Film Festival. But whether the same demand on the world stage of his new film, to tell in advance is difficult - very specific material: biography of Sergei Dovlatov.
3. Kira Muratova (born in 1934)
Muratova's greatness is directly proportional to its challenging professional destiny: a rare Soviet director faced with so many prohibitions and persecutions. For all its glaring apolitical Kira irked the censors like no other: a special, stubbornness, inability to compromise. Her debut, "Brief Encounters" (1969) was the "third screen", and the second film "The Long Goodbye" (1971) lay on the shelf until 1987, the year. The third - "Getting to Know the Big Wide World" - was made after an eight-year hiatus, and the fourth film adaptation of a textbook story Korolenko "Among Gray Stones" (1983), was so crippled by editors that Muratova has removed his name from the credits (the original version did not survive, the one that is, signed by "Ivan Sidorov").
The restructuring Muratova received carte blanche - shoot what you want. Once again, the conflict: its prized in Berlin "asthenic syndrome" (1989) two years could not go out in the domestic box office because of the rapid obscene monologue heroine. The then minister of culture, actor and director Nikolai Hubenko pleaded drown out swear words: "Kira, it's your whim." "Yes, a whim," - replied inflexible Muratova. World opened Muratov simultaneously with the restructuring: "The Sentimental Policeman" in 1992, honored the "Golden Leopard" in 1994, the premiere of "eternal return" at the Rome Festival in 2012 and a full retrospective in 2013 at the festival in Rotterdam. That's fine, but the foreign fans can Muratova and regret - not knowing the language, they can not appreciate the amazing phonetic originality of her paintings.
4. Gleb Panfilov (born in 1934)
The Grand Prize winner of two of the world's largest festival - "Golden Leopard" in Locarno for the debut of "No Path Through Fire" (1969) and "Golden Bear" in Berlin for "shelving" "Topic" (1987). That's not counting the gold MIFF for "Vassa" (1983) and Cannes special prize for "Mother" (1990). However, Panfilov not of those who are primarily associated with the "export" the movie - because of deep immersion in the Soviet-Russian realities, indifference to public relations and the relatively small number of paintings: there are only 10 (the latter - a TV movie of Ostrovsky " guilty without guilt "- made in th 2008). Today Panfilov often working in the theater; premiered this month - "Audience" on the stage of the Theater of Nations with Inna Chourikova starring. But judging by the regular reissues movies on dvd and blue-ray, appreciate it in Europe much more than we do. Anyway, such a luxurious box set as the French, with the recommendations on the cover names Panfilov - Tchourikova, it was not in Russia.
5. Herbert Rappaport (1908-1983)
This unique filmmaker was born in Vienna, the son of immigrants from the city. His professional career began as an assistant Georg Wilhelm Pabst in Berlin after the Nazis came to power with Pabst emigrated to America, where in 1935 and succumbed to the persuasion of the Soviet People's Commissar for the movie Boris Shumyatsky move to the Soviet Union. Rappaport's directorial debut was the shot on "Lenfilm" anti-fascist film "Professor Mamlock" (1938). The picture came out in wide release until after the war: in 1938 printed copies quickly seized - with Nazi Germany was still trying to be friends.
Today in Russia Rappaport movies offhand remember a few specialists: they are few, a good third is done in collaboration with other directors, most popular of all - a detective to the intrigues of "tsehovikov" "Two tickets for the daytime session" (1966) with a young Zbrueva as sotrulnika OBKHSS . However, in Germany and Austria in the first place, thanks to the critics, curators Barbara Wurm and Olaf Müller, festival audience honors Rappaport as a master of various genre films - musical comedy, war drama, spy and detective thrillers, films, performances, giving an example of the fine games with sound and editing.
6. Ivan I. Tverdovskiy (born in 1988)
Author provocative, cheeky stylized documentary shorts "Like waiting for the bus", "Snow" and "Dog kicks" - they even many professionals recklessly accepted for non-fiction films - debuted in full meter explosive socio-psychological drama "Class of correction." The film received the top prize in the "East of the West" at the festival in Karlovy Vary. The next film Tverdovskogo "Zoology" - painful and lyrical tale about a woman with a tail and obscurantism Russian eternal life - came already in the main competition of Karlovy Vary, and after the festival in Toronto successfully "sold" to rent in North America, Canada, Ireland and the UK. Near the young hero of our collections have every chance of a wonderful international career: with imagination, courage and profession of his son Ivan documentary Tverdovskogo everything is in order.
7. Nikolay Khomeriki (born in 1975)
Quite a long time almost officially considered Russian-French director: after the Higher Courses for Scriptwriters and Film Directors Khomeriki was a graduate student of the Paris film school La Fémis, and then worked as an assistant Philippe Garrel on "permanent lover", was the student competition Cannes prize for the short film "Together" He participated in a section of the Cannes film festival "Un Certain Regard" (and one of the roles in his film "977" played a brilliant director, enfant terrible of French cinema Leos Carax).
The turning point in his career came with the film "Heart of a boomerang" of 2011: the only major festival, show interest, became the Moscow International. Then Khomeriki, like, switched to the domestic film and television market, making, in particular resonance detective series "Dragon Syndrome" (2012) and People's blockbuster "Icebreaker" (2016). But to write off its accounts with international early - the same "Icebreaker" is going on this spring festival in Wiesbaden.
8. Marlene Hutsiev (born in 1925)
Classic Soviet thaw movie - you do not know anything about the 1960s, if you do not see the full version of "I Am Twenty" lasting three and a half hours - has received international recognition at the beginning of a career. In 1965, his film "I'm twenty years" (actually, a short, censored version of "I Am Twenty") shared the special prize of the Venice Film Festival with "Simeon-stylite" Buñuel. Last for today Hutsieva film "Infinity" was released in 1992 and participated in the Berlin festival competition, which received the "innovative" Alfred Bauer prize.
Western audiences rediscovered the director in 2015 at the Festival of Locarno. In retrospect Hutsieva included not only the classic "I Am Twenty" with "July Rain", but also the first independent film "Two Fedor" and underrated television masterpiece "was the month of May." The result - tears in the eyes of the audience, created a furore and a new round of world fame: Marlene Martynovich retrospective traveled to Mar del Plata, Mexico City, Lisbon, New York, Paris and Harvard Film Archives. And in 2017 the Paris Cinematheque shows a rare experience Hutsieva in documentary - almost unknown in Russia in 1971 telefilm "The Scarlet Sail Paris."
9. Evgeny Yufit (1961-2016)
Yufit - one of the pioneers of the Soviet "parallel" (ie, existing outside the state system of production) movie and creator necrorealism - it is a unique direction in art that grew from pathological anatomy and mysticism, science and Guignol, zombie horror and socialist realism, manuals in forensic medicine and the mystery of death, the beyond endless banter and seriousness.
Official debut Yufit considered a full meter 1991 "Papa died Grandfather Frost", made in the "Workshop of the first and the experimental film" Alexis Herman. But before the "Pope" Yufit made half a dozen short films, whose names - such as "orderlies-negotiable" or "Boar suicide" - say the essence of "necrorealism" better than any analytical texts.
His latest film "bipedalism" Yufit made in 2005, the same year he made a large-scale solo retrospective festival in Rotterdam. All the cinematographic work Yufit there are on the verge of contemporary art - and includes, in addition to paintings and photographs in the collections of major museums, including New York's MoMA.
For the Russian public - and not only wide - Yufit was always too "otherworldly". What is perfectly aware, saying, for example, in an interview with Radio Liberty: "I did not fit into the context of modern Russian cinema, in spite of it exist. And the last three films were funded by Western foundations. Russian kinoisteblishment distancing himself from me, because until now it's something for them incomprehensible. This is for a narrow circle of spectators, having a certain aesthetic experience for the museum festivals and shows. "
10. Friedrich Ermler (1898-1967)
Name Ermler for many associated exclusively with the Stalinist era - in fact, the Stalin Prize of I degree, and as head of "Lenfilm" Ermler brought semiofficial biography of Sergei Kirov "Great Citizen". Of course, in his filmography giants great totalitarian style tower "It protects the homeland" (1943), "Great Break" (1945) and "The Great Power" (1949). But unjustly forgotten and taken in the era of silent film brittle and humane masterpiece "Katka - paper rennet" (1926), "The House in the snowdrifts" (1928), "Fragment of an Empire" (1929). And the "great crisis" - an ode to the commanders who directed the Battle of Stalingrad - won the Grand Prix of the first postwar Canna, not for political reasons. In the West, Ermler honored for sublime realism, drama and historicism. His last painting was the artistic and journalistic work "before the court of history" (1965), is not unambiguous dialogue with Vasily Shulgin, a nationalist, monarchist and ideologist of the White movement: in 2014 showing this film became a sensation at the biggest festival of documentary films Doclisboa.