Curious historical myths
Edison invented the light bulb, Einstein was a poor student, and Marie Antoinette advised all diet of cakes - true or not?
We'll show you how it was in reality.
Vikings - helmet with horns
The helmet with horns - an indispensable part Viking image: the cinema, an art gallery or a computer game. In fact, helmets Scandinavians were the usual, like the others. An additional "decoration" warrior Thor by some accounts has awarded Catholic Church. Since the Normans, as they called them in Latin sources, they were very warlike and often attacked the churches and monasteries, their declared devil spawn.
The picture of a bearded Viking horned helmet entrenched in the public consciousness when in the 1820s by Swedish artist August Malmström thus illustrated the poem "The Saga of Fridtjof" Esayasa Tegner, and later, in 1876, his colleague Karl Doppler used drawings to create costumes for operas of Richard Wagner's "Der Ring des Nibelungen".
Yet hats similar design met. For example, in Japan, there were samurai kabuto helmets - for the commanders. Two of the bronze helmet, dating from 1100 - 900 years BC. e. They were found by archaeologists near the Danish town of Vex, and in 1868 a similar discovery was found in the Thames. But scientists are unanimous: these hats existed for ritual and decorative purposes, but not for the battle too inconvenient.
Gladiator - always male
The default assumption is that Gladiator - certainly a man. This is not so. Judging from the extant sources, especially the massive participation of women in gladiatorial combat was during the reign of Nero (54 - 68 AD..) And Domitian (81 - 96 AD..). The Greek historian Dio Cassius in his "History of Rome" tells the story of the festival, hosted by the Emperor Nero, where men and women, with the permission of the Senate, were in bands, circus and took part in equestrian events and gladiatorial combat.
By cruel amusements loyal to a few. In the "Annals" of Tacitus, on the events of 63-64 years BC. E., Noticeably clear conviction: "This year is also marked by the device gladiatorial games, is not inferior to the previous splendor; but an even greater number of noble women and senators mired access to the arena. "
Slaves and commoner to enter the arena because of need or compulsion, but great ladies acted quite deliberately, having aimed to shock society. It repeatedly tried to ban the law until a final veto on the participation of women in the gladiatorial combat are not put in 200 decree of Emperor Septimius Severus.
, Marie Antoinette advised to eat the pastries
, Marie Antoinette, the wife of King Louis XVI, during the French Revolution was declared inspiration conspiracy and executed by guillotine. (A death mask left of it). But no less a sin, testifying to the contempt for ordinary people, became as if Her Majesty said words to the people: "If they have no bread, let them eat cake." However, this phrase in a completely different context, was first performed, when Marie Antoinette was still 14-year-old princess and lived in his native Austria (1769). Jean-Jacques Rousseau in his "Confessions" he wrote: "How do I get to have bread? Buy myself I would never have dared. Important to master, while a sword, went to the baker to buy bread - as it can be! Finally I remembered what figured out a princess; when she was told that peasants have no bread, she said: "Let them eat brioche" and I began to buy brioche ". It is difficult to say whether there was a seditious meaning of the words "a princess". In some versions, at the time there was a law: if a shortage of bread, traders had to sell its price expensive cakes.
Einstein was a poor student
Underachievement great physicist is "iron excuse" for students of all ages. Like, if you really Nobel Prize kicked out of school for lack of knowledge of mathematics, then we do not know its sin.
Rumors, as often happens, exaggerated: "profile subjects" Albert Einstein knew perfectly well. He himself said: "I have never filled up the math ... When I was fifteen I was not yet perfectly mastered differential and integral calculus." But in the Munich gymnasium at the teenager had other problems: he is "constantly demanded evidence of religion and chose freethinking", which led to tensions with the teachers. Not having received a certificate, Einstein went to complete their education in Switzerland, in the town of Aarau. In his matriculation 4 top scores - "Six" (history, algebra, geometry, physics), the lowest point - 3 - in French. And instead of assessing English and does is blank (but the Italian - 5). A significant role in creating a myth about Einstein-Losers was the fact that one of the earliest biographers of the author of the theory of relativity has confused the Swiss rating scale with the German, where the highest grade is "one".
Edison invented the light bulb
And now the fashion among the interior you can see the stylized "Edison's light bulb." Thomas Edison merits are undeniable: in 1093 he patented the invention in the United States. But, as is often the case, many of them were "collective creativity": the idea was in the air. So it was with the lamp.
English scientist Humphry Davy in 1809, described an arc electrical discharge between two carbon rods. But about the middle of the XIX century to the problem of creating an electric lighting connected the best minds of Russia, Europe and America.
Belgian Zhobar lamp constructed with a carbon core (burning does not exceed half an hour). Briton Warren De la Rue created the first in the history of the analogue to the coil. German Heinrich Göbel vacuum tube provided with carbonized bamboo yarn (the device can operate for several hours). Russian engineer Alexander Lodygin patented vacuum tube with a carbon rod.
Research continued, patents proliferated, the device was perfected. Joseph Swan due to the rarefied oxygen atmosphere managed to achieve a very bright light. Thomas Edison had about 1,500 testing different materials and created a lamp, burning 40 hours. Lodygin proposed using yarn made of tungsten and molybdenum - in the form of a spiral ... So, collectively, was born the familiar light bulb.
Its shape, screw cap with chuck and rotary switch - the undoubted merit of Edison. But much to his credit in another. In 1882, the inventor said: "We will make electricity so cheap that only the rich will burn candles." And then he got down to business. In the same year, Edison built the first in New York, distribution substations and founded the Edison General Electric in manufacturing lighting fixtures. At a cost of 110 cents, he set the selling price of light bulbs 40 cents. Within 4 years, the output of bulbs increased, and the cost is reduced. When it fell to 22 cents, and production increased to one million, Edison per year covered all losses. And he made the electric light available for everyone.