Disposal of waste American (Part 3)
• Recycling of the American waste (Part 3)
The third article about recycling in an American waste.
With the invention of the toilet flush in the middle of the 19th century, and the active implementation of the invention in the way of life, the London urban sewerage longer cope, and sewage all began a thicket and often fall into the Thames where withdrawals carried out. If you consider that something really is no sewage system, and was not, and all uncleanness merged into numerous latrines, it is not surprising. In 1858, after the disaster remained in history as the "Great Stink" and several of the cholera epidemic, the decision was made on the construction of urban sewage system.
When she started work, urban waste water without any substantial purification were directed straight into the Thames, but downstream. When in 1878 as a result of collision with a coal miner on the Thames sank the passenger ship "Princess Alice", only a few people have died from the blow, the rest of 645 drowned in the fetid and poisonous waters of the river, where an hour before the tragedy were dropped 340 thousand. Cubic meters of sewage .
In 1882, the Royal Commission attended the purity of the Thames, and decided that it is necessary not just to dump and clean the sewers, separating the solid from the liquid fraction, and exporting them to the first special ships on the high seas. The resulting solid mass as a result of the process in English is called sludge (sludge). Thus it appeared the first sludge vessels that were taken and dumped solid waste into the open sea. The first vessel was was specially built for this purpose in 1887 by tanker to quickly get "govnovoz" nickname of the people. In addition to London such vessels worked in Manchester, on the River Tyne and Glasgow. The Scots went further, and work on clearing in the summer combined with cruises and parties on board. I can imagine, as they called those cruises. The era of the British "govnovozov" Only in 1989, when the European Union has tightened environmental regulations, and prohibited to dump waste into the waters of the sea. New York was faced with the same problem for almost 100 years later in London. First there was sewage in the city in the middle of the 19th century. In 1850-1855 years of 110 km has been laid. sewers, which was poured into water drains Hudson and East River. In 1890 the first three sewage treatment plants, which are also dumped their results in the surrounding water were built. By sewers added waste water from the numerous industrial enterprises stood on the banks. As a result, the water in the waters of New York harbor were so dirty and poisonous that on the bottoms of ships arriving in New York, leave no trace of marine organisms. The bottom could not be cleaned from the shell. Unfortunately, along with all life, water destroying metal plating and coating.
water pollution problem has appeared much earlier, but attended to its decision of New York until the end of the 30s of the last century, which ordered the construction of three sludge vessels. As a model for the organization of the process of recycling sludge Americans used the British experience. Three vessels were served three wastewater treatment plant. We threw off sludge into the ocean near modern bridge Verrazano-Narrows. In 1972, the discharge point moved farther into the ocean for the lightship Ambrose, but the current returned it all back to shore and polluting beaches on the coast of Long Island to southern New Jersey. In 1987 he moved to reset point distance 106 miles from the coast, and in 1991, the dumping of waste in the water and was banned altogether. From this point on, the courts began a new life. So what and where are they now carry? In 1913, the UK has invented a new technology of water treatment in the aeration tanks, and today sludge is not the same stinking mass that was taken out once by the courts beyond the waters of London, and the so-called activated sludge - the result of a biological waste water treatment does not have a strong smell ( it smells a little peat). As a result of such purification is obtained to remove about 95% of contaminants. In New York thus purified water is disinfected with sodium hypochlorite and discharged into the river and the bay, and the remaining sludge is dried by removing 90% of it fluid. The resulting material is used as a fertilizer. The entire cleaning cycle takes about 7 hours. The problem is that for the sludge drying plants are equipped with only eight New York station of fourteen. Here and there comes a time for sludge vessels. Tongue itches govonovozami call them, but they still ilovozy. They take away the mud at the stations without installations for drying and transporting it to where such facilities are.
In order to present the amount of work necessary to turn to the numbers:.. Daily New York absorbs 4, 5 million cubic meters of clean water and produces about 5 million cubic meters of sewage (1 cubic meter = 1000 liters = 1 tonne). They are cleaned on a 14 city stations. In New York, operates three ships-ilovoza.
The most modern was commissioned in 2009. It called "Red Hook" and can carry 4500 cubic meters of sludge. All vessels belong DEP - Department of Environmental Protection in New York, and every day carry about 8500 cubic meters of silt. Each vessel makes the walker 14 per week. The team consists of 6 people, who work for 12 hours. loading and unloading operations take two hours each.
One of the stations do not have systems for sludge drying station is the North River, located in the area of 141 th Street in Manhattan on the Hudson River, serving a third of the island's population. Purified water is discharged into the Hudson, and the sludge is transported to the station on the island of Ward on the East River, where he worked since 1937.
Daily plant processes about 500 thousand. Cubic meters of wastewater. Full capacity of the plant allows to purify approximately 1, 3 million. Cubic meters per day. The station launched in 1986. On its roof equipped park with soccer fields, ice rink, playground, picnic area and a swimming pool. I'll have to somehow walk.