History of the Kremlin stars
• The history of the Kremlin stars
Moscow Kremlin - massive structure and the main symbol of the Russian Federation. The highlight of the Kremlin considered the most beautiful five-pointed ruby star. Until August 1935 the spiers of the Kremlin towers were decorated with heraldic two-headed eagles, but after the decision of the CPSU Central Committee, they have been replaced with five-pointed stars, which became a symbol of the new system.
History of the creation of a new character was not easy. On Stalin's orders design and production work was entrusted to the Central Aero-Hydrodynamic Institute Professor NE Zhukovsky in Moscow. The first designer to the stars became the Honored Art Worker Evgeny Lancer, but later it was replaced by Fedor Fedorovsky.
After the development Fedorovskij sketches made prototypes of real size, which were decorated with precious stones, siyavshimi in the night sky. For each tower to create a customized design of stars. At the end of 1935 the final layout has been approved by senior management, and will soon have transgressed the construction.
Decoration and installation of
Production process led hundreds of people of different professions. Artists, craftsmen, engineers, blacksmiths worked together to create a unique star for all the towers. The first ones were made of red copper and stainless steel. There were even developed special galvanic systems to achieve sliding effect.
The symbols of each star were covered with gold, and seven thousand semi-precious stones: amethyst, topaz, alexandrite, rock crystal and aquamarine, ranging in size from 20 to 200 carats, which were brought from the Urals. Each star has been designed such as to withstand the harsh winds and severe weather in Moscow.
In the mid-1930s, there was no crane that could lift a star weighing about one ton to a height of 52 and 77 m. For this purpose it was necessary to construct a special high-altitude crane installed on the upper tiers of the towers of the towers through window. Star-day was a real treat Russians. Thousands of people from across the country met at the Red Square to watch the process. After raising the stars on the towers peaks climbers set them on the exact position.
The new design and replacement of
Fairy tale did not last long. After two harsh winters of Moscow, precious stones and gold leaf fallen strongly. Also, Stalin decided that the shining stars bad in harmony with the elegant roofs of the Kremlin towers. In 1937 it was approved a new design.
Fedorov decided to cover the star ruby glass and change their size, shape and pattern. Ruby glass was brewed in a glass factory in Konstantinovka on the new technology, "Selenium Ruby", which was much cheaper and more reliable than the technology glazier Nikolai Kurochkin.
A new frame of stars was much stronger than the previous one and can withstand even the strongest wind. The total weight of the gold coating stars exceeded eleven kilograms. However, designers are faced with another problem: ruby glass is blackened in the sun. This has become a real problem, but the chief engineer of the project, Professor Alexander Landa found a way out.
Especially for the stars at the Moscow Lamp Factory Chief Engineer RA Nelender developed unique incandescent lamps 5000 watts. To eliminate the possibility of overheating or damage to the special ventilation system was designed lamps, skipping 600 cubic meters of air per hour. In each of the two filament lamps connected in parallel, so if one of them to blow, the signal fed to a central control panel.
After '82 the stars, as well as on the first day was still shining on the tops of the towers of the Kremlin. Every five years, their net industrial climbers. If you are coming to Moscow, do not forget to look at the stars and remember what a tremendous work has been done by Soviet engineers in the past, so that we can enjoy this architectural creations today.