The fortress of the ancient city of Russia
• of the ancient city of Fortress Russia
Derbent is the oldest city in the Russian Federation. It is located in Dagestan, on the Caspian Sea. Historians believe that his age is not less than 5000 years, although the exact date of its foundation is unknown. The main attraction of the city is the fortress of Derbent.
In ancient times, Derbent was located in the most vulnerable to strategically place the Caspian passage, where the mountains of the Greater Caucasus come closest to the sea, leaving only a narrow three-kilometer strip of the plain. Citadel occupies the top of the hill next to the sea.
The path along the shore were blocking two walls adjacent to the west of the citadel, and in the east go to sea, preventing the circumvention of the fortress on the water. Between the walls and settled the town of Derbent.
The length of the walls in the city of 3, 6 kilometers. The north and south walls were built parallel to each other, the distance between them ranges from 300 to 400 meters.
The sea wall covered the entrance to the city from the Caspian Sea. The water wall lasted almost half a kilometer.
The citadel perched on top of a 300-meter steep hill. Steep slopes safely protect it from enemy invasion from the east and north.
During the excavation of ancient graves were found.
was a little small, but very strong gate, through which in ancient times it was possible to get to Derbent in the walls of the fortress defense system. The gate opened for guests allies and merchants.
The modern name of the city of Derbent appears in written sources since the 7th century, and means in Persian "locked gate."
The massive walls surrounding the town from all sides, have been reliable protection against invaders.
in the vicinity of Derbent fortress was built to protect the peoples who inhabited the Near East and the Caucasus, from the devastating invasions of the northern nomads.
The historians have not managed to find out who built the fortress of Derbent. There are lots of legends: from fire-breathing giants that inhabited the earth before the advent of humanity, to the base of Alexander the Great.
The ancient buildings were built during the reign of the Sassanid dynasty.
Zindan - pit for prisoners in the shape of a cone, so that prisoners could not get up.
a partial reconstruction of the fortress has been made in our time, but it did, I think, not very neatly. Mostly noticeable openly new stones and tiles, chaotically placed flower vases, new lights, roughly hanging wire.
The truth is glad that no one had the idea to install a fence on the inside walls of the fortress, to "tourists do not fall down." So it looks much more natural, and no one still does not fall off the wall.
The citadel Naryn-Kala city stretches along 700 meters.
In the walls of the citadel there are plenty of towering protrusions located at a distance of 25-35 meters.
The southern part of fortifications equipped with steps, and in its broad walls located site.
In some places along the walls of the passages are very narrow, have to walk sideways.
The thickness of the walls is sometimes 3, 5 meters and a height of 20 meters.
The city had not the most favorable strategic position and was vulnerable from the Caucasus mountains and the sea, so the local people paid special attention to its strengthening.
Inside the citadel preserved ancient khan baths with windows in roofs and buildings that have survived to our time.
Two stone water reservoir disposed within the citadel were constructed in the 11th century Byzantine masters. The containers were placed large water reserves, which allowed the fortress to withstand prolonged deposition city invaders.
In ancient times, bath was located here. Of course, before the interior looked quite different: there were beautiful walls and floor, a unique system of steam supply.
The interesting thing is that now all of the internal structure of the citadel are literally underground. During the long years of existence and life of the fortress, it was entered into many species, under which eventually turned out to be the city's building.
The Citadel served not only defensive, but also the administrative center of the city. It housed the Chancery, judgment, and an underground prison, out of which the prisoner was impossible.
One of the ancient buildings were cross-domed church of the 5th century, later converted into a Moslem religious institution.
There is even a theory of the existence in ancient times in Eurasia continuous fortification line, split the continent in two.
The steep slopes of the citadel reliably protect it from enemy invasion from the east and north.
With a height offer excellent views of Derbent.