How do alcohol
• How do alcohol
Remember the anecdote as Vasily Ivanovich asked Petka hide from the soldiers of alcohol tank, and he painted the word "alcohol" by writing instead C2H5OH? And in the morning the soldiers were in the insole. How did - he wrote. It turned out really, it is!
Surprisingly, the network is almost no detailed reports on how to make the ITS - the main raw material for vodka. How to make vodka itself - fully. From booze to luxury brands. And alcohol - no!
Will have to fill this gap, the benefit of last week I visited the distillery Usadskom near Kazan, part of the "Tatspirtprom" concern.
Here make alcohol the highest category - "Alpha", which is gradually replacing the once top-end "Suite" from the production of high-quality brands of vodka. All the same old method, invented before our era, implemented on an industrial scale in the XIV century and is widely practiced in barns and garages during Perestroika. Good old distillation ...
At the entrance of the grain bag in the yield of pure 96-degree ... liquid
As you know, exhilarating action of alcohol, and methods for their preparation are known to mankind since biblical times: remember Noah accidentally drank fermented fruit juice and drunk. In general, the researchers suggest that the idea of the chemical distillation of liquids arisen in I millennium BC. e. For the first time the distillation process described by Aristotle (384-320 gg. BC. E.). Many alchemists of the time engaged in the improvement of distillation techniques, believing that by distilling it possible to distinguish the soul of wine. With this product distillation, and was named the "spirit of wine" (from the Latin "spiritus vini").
The process of alcohol production was opened in different regions of the globe almost simultaneously. In 1334 the doctor-alchemist from Provence Arnaud de Villger (France) for the first time received a spirit of wine from grape wine, believing it cures. In the middle of the XIV century, some French and Italian monasteries produced wine alcohol called "aquavitae" - "water of life", and in 1386 through the Genoese merchants alcohol got to Moscow. ethanol production began in Europe after the invention in Italy, in the XI century distillation apparatus. Several centuries ethanol are not used in its pure form, except in the laboratories of alchemists. However, in 1525, the famous Paracelsus noticed ester, obtained by heating the alcohol with sulfuric acid, it has a sedative effect. He described his experience with poultry. A 17 October 1846 Warren surgeon lulled first patient ether.
alcohol gradually split into food and technical obtained by splitting wood waste. In England, industrial alcohol was released from raising taxes on the sale, as the market value of the liquor pays for government fees, but doctors and industrialists such value was not under force. In order to prevent eating of its toxic industrial alcohol mixed with methanol and other unpleasant odor additives.
Subsequently the alcohol was instantaneous propagation in medicine due to the constant wars. In 1913, the Russian Empire around 2400 plants was recorded, produced mainly vodka and wine. Later there was the separation of the production of alcohol and vodka.
With the outbreak of World War II, the production of vodka virtually ceased, alcohol production decreased as well. Production began to recover only in the years 1925-1926, and the grand restoration of the alcohol industry was only launched in 1947, it began to intensively apply new scientific and technological achievements and technology. In 1965 he worked in the USSR 428 plants with an annual production of 127, 8 million. Dal alcohol, and by 1975 issue of alcohol has increased to 188, 1 million. Dal. In subsequent years, this production is gradually decreased due to the increased release of beverages with a lower strength.
Depending on the raw alcohol is food and technical.
Food made only from food materials. The most common and cost-effective raw material for alcohol production is potatoes. Potato starch easily fall apart, gelatinized and saccharified. In addition to potatoes for the production of alcohol used grains - wheat, rye, barley, oats, maize, millet, as well as sugar beet, sugar syrup or molasses. Much less frequently used fruit, grape materials, artichoke and other carbohydrate-rich raw materials.
Technical alcohol is obtained from petroleum or wood, is subjected to acid hydrolysis. Technical alcohol contains an increased amount of harmful impurities, so its use for food purposes is forbidden.
Now about alcohol categories and why "Alpha" displaces "Lux". The thing is that the alcohol "Alpha" has to be produced from wheat, rye or a mixture thereof, that is, exclusively from grain raw materials, unlike other alcohols that can be produced also from a mixture of grains and potatoes.
The second important difference of "Alpha" from "Lux" - a reduced content of toxic methyl alcohol: the rate of its content is only 0 and 003% by weight of anhydrous alcohol, whereas alcohol "Lux" - 0, 02%. This greatly!
On Usladskom distillery alcohol is produced exclusively from wheat, and only one category - "Alpha".
Wheat brought in special grain and placed in a high barrel-silos, where it then goes to production.
The grain for alcohol production should be of good quality and moisture content of not more than 17%, otherwise there is a high risk of rottenness that affect the final quality of the final product. From the storage tanks with the help of a huge, powerful pump-turbine grain "pumped" through the column at a high initial processing.
Pumps for "pumping" grain storage on the cleaning.
The first problem - clean grain from all impurities, both solid and conventional litter, husks, etc...
So in the beginning it gets on the separator.
first wheat is sifted through a sieve, which are all large items.
This rubble has accumulated around the separator in just half of the day!
Further, removal of the husk and various debris. It is produced by a powerful air stream which separates the grain heavy and light debris.
This is what remains after the grain is "gone" through pipes further fragmentation.
Zernoprovod from the separator to the crusher.
Crusher turns grain into a coarse flour. This is necessary for further cooking of the grain and release the starch therefrom.
grain of cooking occurs to break down their cell walls. As a result, the starch is released and becomes a soluble form. In this state, it is much easier saccharifying enzymes. The grain is treated with steam at a pressure of 500 kPa. When a cooked mass exits the cooker, reduced pressure results in the formation of steam (from the water contained in cells).
Such an increase in the volume of the cell wall breaks and makes the grain into a homogeneous mass. of cooking temperature is 172 ° C and cooking time of about 4 minutes.
For all the processes occurring in the distillery, watch operators in the equipment room. Here they see fully what is happening in each area, that is. To. The alcohol production process is continuous and is carried out 24/7.
the process of cooking itself comprises three steps: a strict dosage beans and water, heating the mix to boiling temperature, holding at a given mass temperature.
Milled grain is mixed with water in a ratio of 3 liters per 1 kg of grains. Grain mill base is heated with steam (75 ° C) and pumped into the contact hole installation. It is here that there is an instantaneous heating of a slurry to a temperature of 100 ° C. Thereafter, the heated batch is placed in the cooker.
In the process of saccharification in the cooled mass add malted milk to break down starch. Active chemical interaction leads to the fact that the product becomes completely suitable for further fermentation process. The result is a wort that contains 18% dry sugar.
When the mass of the sample is iodine, the color of the wort should remain unchanged.
fermentation wort begins with the introduction of mass production saccharified yeast. It splits maltose into glucose, which in turn fermented into alcohol and carbon dioxide. Also begin to form secondary fermentation products (essential acid and t. D.).
fermentation process takes place in large installations closed fermentation, which prevent loss of alcohol and recovering carbon dioxide production plant.
Installation is so large that the upper and lower parts are on different floors!
Here is the home-brewed beer to install. Look should be very careful not to breathe vapors of carbon dioxide.
The liberated during the fermentation process, carbon dioxide and alcohol vapor from the fermentation installation come into special compartments, where the separation of water-alcohol liquid and carbon dioxide. The content of ethanol in the mash must be equal to 9, 5 vol.%. By the way, the plant we were invited to try the mash.
By the way, here are fountains everywhere can be seen in the shops. They are designed for eyewash in case of contact with these dangerous products production, which is missing here.
Next, proceed to the alcohol from the mash distillation and rectification. Alcohol begins to separate from the mash resulting from boiling at various temperatures. distillation mechanism itself is based on the following patterns: alcohol and water characteristic different boiling point (water - 100 degrees, the alcohol - 78 ° C). Dedicated vapor begins to condense and be collected in a separate container. Purification alcohol impurities produced by the distillation unit.
Above us is a rectification plant floor. Here, under them, the whole piping system takes place - for some alcohol, some water, some steam, some by-products.
And in the distillation room is hot !!!
The crude alcohol (raw alcohol), obtained in the main production phase, can not be used for food purposes, as it contains many harmful impurities (fusel oil, methyl alcohol esters). Many impurities are poisonous and unpleasant smell give alcohol, which is why the crude alcohol is purified - rectification.
Removal of noxious impurities is carried out in the rectification process, based on the different boiling point of ethyl, methyl and higher alcohols, esters. Thus all impurities conventionally divided into head, tail and intermediate.
Head impurities have a lower boiling point than ethanol. These include acetaldehyde and some esters (ethyl acetate, ethyl formate etc.) Resulting from the distillation.
The tail impurity differ higher boiling point compared to ethyl alcohol. It is composed mainly fusel oils, and methanol.
Most trudnootdelyaemoy fraction are intermediate impurity (ethyl ester of isobutyric acid, and other esters).
When cleaning the crude alcohol in distillation apparatus is made separation of harmful impurities and increases the concentration of alcohol in the final product (88% in crude alcohol to 96-96, 5% rectified).
Ready alcohol strength of 96% is pumped to a storage tank.
To look into these containers should be even more cautious than in a home brew capacity. Where you can get drunk, and in a moment ...
Ready alcohol is sent to the control measurements and, if all goes well, it is assigned a category of "Alpha" and then he will go to the production of vodka and other purpose ...