A witch or a saint? Why The Vatican canonized Joan of Arc
• The witch or a saint? Why The Vatican canonized Joan of Arc
In the XV century. she was accused of witchcraft and heresy and burned at the stake, and in the early twentieth century. They recognized saint and canonized. Joan of Arc - is not only a national symbol of France, but also a constant subject for debate. With its name is associated with a great number of legends that still last debate about whether it really burned in Rouen and how legitimate was the canonization of Joan of Arc.
Joan of Arc was born in 1412, in the midst of the Hundred Years' War, in an ordinary peasant family. With 13 years she began to hear strange voices calling for her to build on the French throne legitimate heir - the Dauphin Charles VII of, to lift the siege of Orleans, and expel the British invaders from the kingdom. At that time the ruler of France under a contract of Troyes was an English King Henry the V, and France actually joined to England, what tacitly accused the Queen Isabella of Bavaria. People say: if a woman has ruined France, then save it should Virgo.
JE Leneva. Left - * * Joan of Arc Vision, 1889. Right - * Joan of Arc at the siege of Orleans, * 1886-1890
J. Bastien-Lepage. Joan of Arc Vision 1879
Joan, for her stories, had visions of saints - the archangel Michael, Catherine and Margaret's. They called it the chosen and called for the liberation of France. When Joan was 17 years old said about their visions, it was ridiculed. But after that she repeatedly predicted the outcome of the battle, and began to listen to her. In 1429 she went to the castle of Chinon and achieved an audience of Charles VII. She managed to convince the Dauphin trust her military detachment to free Orleans. Under her leadership the siege was lifted.
Left - Joan of Arc. Thumbnail second half of the XV century. Right - G. Shtilke. Death of Joan of Arc at the stake
Unknown artist. The execution of Joan of Arc
After that, Jeanne was able to convince the Royal Council of the need to march on Reims for the purpose of the coronation of Charles VII. The plan was successfully implemented thanks to the Virgin of Orleans Cathedral in Reims the coronation of Charles VII. King then behaved unexpectedly instead of the next attack, he made a truce with the Burgundians, in January 1930, the army was disbanded. Jeanne was captured, it was transferred to the British. It was rumored that she had betrayed approximate Charles VII.
JE Leneva. Left - * Joan of Arc at the coronation of Charles VII *. Right - * Joan at the stake, * 1886-1890
At the beginning of 1431 Joan of Arc was brought before the Inquisition. She was charged with several counts, which included telling, wearing men's clothing, heresy, and the deceitfulness of the king, false prophecy, calling of evil spirits, sorcery, communication with the devil, and so on. D. The main aim of the trial was to prove that Charles VII illegally erected on throne witch and heretic verootstupnitsa, and thus undermine the credibility of the people. Jeanne examined to confirm her virginity and female gender. The reasons for there was no doubt that contradicted the charges of witchcraft - then it was believed that every witch has intercourse with the devil.
Left - ZH.-O. D. Engr. Joan of Arc at the coronation of Charles VII, 1854. On the right - PP Rubens. Praying Joan of Arc, approx. 1620
Under pain of death, Joan of Arc signed a letter of abdication of his views. But after the prison she took a woman's dress and men's clothing were planted. She was forced to wear it again, that in fact indicative of a return to heresy. Then Jeanne was sentenced to be burned. After the enforcement of the sentence the executioner cried - he argued that the heart of the Maid of Orleans is not burned in the fire.
Milla Jovovich in the film Joan of Arc * * 1999
Milla Jovovich in the film Joan of Arc * * 1999Cpustya 25 years took a new process, which invited 115 witnesses oprovergnuvshih all the charges. As a result of this trial Joan of Arc was rehabilitated and recognized as a national heroine. Its mission to rescue France confirmed at the beginning of the twentieth century. April 18, 1909 (according to other sources - May 16, 1920) The Vatican canonized Joan of Arc, that is, it has ranked among the saints.
House of Joan of Arc in Domremy
The monument to Joan of Arc in Domremy
Today there are many alternative versions of the story of Joan of Arc. For example, some are convinced that the process of it and the execution itself is staged, as the girl was actually an illegitimate child of royal blood (the daughter of the Duke of Orleans and Isabella of Bavaria). According to this version, she survived and settled in New Orleans by the name of Joan d'Armuaz. However, this version is not found indisputable evidence.
The monument to Joan of Arc in Paris.