The worst in the history of jets
The first-ever experimental jet plane - He.176, developed in Germany - rose into the sky June 20, 1939. It was followed by Heinkel He 178, the main idea of which was to develop new technologies and production of new generation of aircraft engines. With some lag jet machines were released the Allies and Japan. As a result, more than 75 years of history there have been many models, both successful and not.
Vought F7U Cutlass
Before buying Northrop Grumman Vought company released some of the most famous and the most successful aircraft in the history of the United States Navy. During the Second World War developed a Vought F4U Corsair, which was used in the fighting in the Pacific. In Vietnam, the same used by well-known carrier-based fighter F-8Crusader. During this period, Vought spent developing unusual aircraft such as F7U Cutlass. Initially F7U project intended to modernize the US Navy, but during testing it turned out that it is extremely dangerous and unreliable aircraft. Several pilots were killed in accidents and fatalities. In Cutlass was a unique design for its time - in particular dvuhkilevoe tail built on the aerodynamic configuration "tailless". However, during testing transpired obvious problems. Despite the fact that the Cutlass developed a speed of over 1000 km / h, it had huge problems with the engines, which simply did not have enough traction.
Polish PZL M-15 is one of the most bizarre appearance on aircraft that ever went into production. It was the only mass-produced jet biplane in history, and the only jet for pollination of crops by chemicals. Soviet authorities in the 1970s, felt the urgent need to replace the agricultural fleet, which used outdated aircraft. Given that for many years have used Polish farms, agricultural planes, namely the Polish company PZL started to develop new aircraft. One of the requirements was that the new plane was to be used a jet engine, which previously has not been done. When PZL built a test jet plane, it was discovered that its cruise speed is only 161 kilometers per hour (and the maximum - 200 kilometers per hour). As a result, M-15, did not live up to expectations, since it was too uneconomical, and the speed is poor. It was built only 175 copies, after which the project was canceled.
When in 1969 by the British Navy was adopted Harrier Jump Jet - Fighter with vertical takeoff and landing, the Soviet Union began to develop its own deck light attack aircraft. Unfortunately, the Yak-38 eventually became one of the most useless sea planes ever commissioned. Despite the cosmetic similarities to the Harrier, in the Yak-38 used a different set of hoisting motors. Because of these differences in the design of the Yak-38 used during take-off is much more fuel than the Harrier. This greatly limited the combat range of the aircraft. With full operational loading range of Yak-38 flight was only 680 km (or 500 km at a vertical takeoff). Also, in order to facilitate as much as possible the weight of the aircraft, there are only four external pylons for weapons was provided.
In 1947, Charles Yeager first broke the sound barrier on the aircraft Bell X-1, thus opening a new era in aviation. After that, in many countries began to actively develop their own jet aircraft, most of the projects which have been unsuccessful. So there was also a Bristol 188 - futuristic aircraft of stainless steel, which the project was to develop a speed of 2, 6 Mach. It was assumed that at such speeds the body is heated to 300 degrees Celsius, which is why Bristol 188 was nicknamed "Flaming Pencil". During the first test flight revealed a problem - take-off speed of "188 th" was 480 kilometers per hour, which is a bust for any aircraft. For takeoff "Burning pencil" needed too long runway. The final nail in the coffin of Bristol 188 was that he failed to even reach the speed of Mach 2.
McDonnell XF-85 Goblin
For many years, attempts have been made to build the so-called "parasitic" fighters, which would dock with the help of coupling with the heavy bombers and protect the "flying fortresses" of interceptors. In 1948 the company presented McDonnell XF-85 Goblin - tiny and strange "parasite fighter" who would be transported in the bomb bay B-36 - modified B-29 bomber. Unfortunately for McDonnell, Goblin proved a complete failure. Despite the fact that the plane turned out extremely stable, he was extremely weak arms - only four of 12, 7 mm machine gun. Also during the first test flight pilot Edwin Shohu failed to dock with the remote trapeze B-29.
Although Germany has played a leading role in the development of jet aircraft during the Second World War, the destruction of the German aviation industry and its slow post-war reconstruction led to what Germany initially lagged behind other world powers in the development of post-war jet aircraft. The first jet plane was built in 1949, but in 1956 the German aircraft designers began to work on developing its own jet airliner. Engineers from the German Democratic Republic, who had previously worked in the company Junkers, designed Baade 152, which became the first turbojet passenger plane in Germany. In the plane unusual powerplant was used, swept wing and landing gear, similar to that which was on the US B-47. Unfortunately, during the second test flight prototype 152 has crashed, the killed whole crew. Engineers have made significant changes to the second prototype fully converted chassis configuration changing engine and fairings. But the idea also was unsuccessful, and by 1961 the project was closed.
In the 1960s and 1970s in vogue supersonic aircraft. The British and French developed the "Concord", and in the USSR was developed almost identical to the Tu-144. Although the supersonic passenger plane was advanced for its time, the Tu-144 was one of the worst aircraft ever commissioned. The first flight of the Tupolev aircraft was made two months before the flight, "Concorde". From the outset, with the Tu-144, there was a lot of the problem. The first passenger prototype crashed right in front of the audience during a demonstration flight at Le Bourget in 1973. However, the beginning of commercial operation of the aircraft. After several flight engineers discovered that the body of two Tu-144 were on the verge of structural collapse, while at the other planes were denied some systems during the flight. Although the accident was no more, after just 55 flights have stopped using the plane for passenger transport. After another 50 flights (where the Tu-144 has acted as a cargo plane) from its operation completely abandoned.
Dassault Balzac V and Mirage III
In the main fighter projects with vertical takeoff and landing is unsuccessful. When the British Harrier developed in the late 1960s, the French also began to work on their own fighter aircraft vertical takeoff and landing. The idea was good on paper, but has completely failed in practice. The company Dassault has equipped one of the first prototypes Mirage III eight lifting jet engines. The plane, called Balzac V, after several months of test flights crashed - overturned during landing. In this case, the test pilot was killed. Dassault restored prototype and continued testing. In 1965, the American pilot killed during the test. Plane substantially redesigned and named the Mirage III V. Just like his predecessor, he had a promising start. But disaster struck again and the project finally closed.
De Havilland Comet
mid-range passenger jet from the De Havilland led Britain into raptures. The Comet aircraft, whose first flight took place in 1949, predicted a great future as he became one of the first jet aircraft in the world. Unfortunately, the Comet became too advanced for its time, and De Havilland engineers lacked understanding of how to design airliners. Their failures led to the deaths of dozens of passengers. The first accident occurred Comet in 1952, when the plane could not take off and ran off the end of the runway. A few months later, in 1953, there was a problem of identity in Pakistan, which this time has led to the deaths of 11 people. While under investigation on the causes of what happened, another Comet simply disintegrated in the air on the rise in India's airport, killing all 43 people aboard. Just over a year later, on January 10, 1954 another Comet suffered from explosive decompression in the air and fell into the ocean, leaving 35 people dead. As it turned out, it led to accidents that have Comet were square windows, which could be destroyed at high speeds.
Rolls-Royce Thrust Measuring Rig
Just looking at this air unit, we can just say that to fly it was incredibly dangerous. Rolls-Royce Thrust Measuring Rig (known colloquially as the "Flying bed"), was used to test the possibility of vertical take-off and landing aircraft. He is essentially a two jet engines attached to a small frame. He had no fuselage, no wings, control surfaces - only fuel tanks, engines and ... Pilot. The tragedy happened in 1957, when the "flying bed" turned over and crushed the pilot. Rolls-Royce has thrown further testing after the disaster and began to explore other forms of VTOL aircraft engines, which ultimately led to the Harrier.