How to shoot the film "Back to the Future"
• How to shoot the film "Back to the Future"
Today, October 21 Marty McFly should arrive from the past in order to save the space-time continuum, or celebrate with us the thirtieth anniversary of the film "Back to the Future" and the birth of the famous trilogy about the journey of an American student time and mad scientist. These films have already come into the treasury of world cinema, and many of the community's readers must have reviewed all of the even in the heyday of pirated video.
But let's find out how the idea of the film was born, and the difficulties encountered by its creators during filming.
Robert Zemeckis and Bob Gale came up with the story of the student and the time machine long before 1985, when the screens out one of the finest adventure movies.
Robert Zemeckis and Bob Gale met in film school at the University of Southern California, when you were there in the sixties, intending to become a Hollywood screenwriter. Later, when his friends were already working on the tinsel town (Zemeckis has already removed a pair of debut films, and Gail - write scripts for them), Bob has laid the foundation of the story itself, which later resulted in the famous trilogy, to conquer the world. Gale struck when after the premiere made in conjunction with Zemeckis film "Used Cars" (1980) he came to St. Louis to visit her parents. There, in the basement of examining the old stuff, Bob came across a photo album of his father, who had never seen before.
Bob Gale: "My father did not particularly like to talk about my youth, and for me it was a great surprise when I came once to his old photo album, and learned that he was president of the senior class. Previously, I did not know. I thought about the president of his class, which almost did not communicate, and I thought: If I had studied in the same class with her father - would we be friends? That's when I came up with this story about a student who falls into the past, and met there with his parents. "
In September 1980 Friends signed a contract for the scenario with "Columbia Pictures", and set to work.
Zemeckis and Gale finished the first draft of the script in February 1981 - and from the outset faced with incomprehension. In the early 80's the most cash youth films ( "Careless times in Ridgemont High," "Porky's") have been films with a pretty harsh rating of "18" - with eroticism, alcohol and violence, and absolutely zero sci-fi component. Authors "Back to the Future" was told that their film "too childish" that most of the target audience will leave him without attention, because it has "a little stiffness."
Zemeckis Gail worked hard to rewrite the script twice, but it was all in vain: those wishing to invest money in it and was not found. But everything changed in an instant, when in 1984, came the resounding success of "Romancing the Stone," Zemeckis filmed thanks to the patronage of Michael Douglas, already high value on the tinsel town. After that, all the producers suddenly wanted to do "Back to the Future", and filled with a sincere belief in the success. But Zemeckis decided to return it to the producer, who from the outset appreciated the scenario when everyone else rejected it - to Spielberg. After Stephen back in 1981, I was delighted with the genuine history, and really wanted to bring it to the screen. That is why Zemeckis eventually chose him.
At the final stage of the script was again amended by the executive producer Sidney Scheinberg: he changed Marty mother's name from Meg to Lorraine (in honor of his beloved wife Lorraine Gary), and insisted that the pet dock Brown instead chimpanzee dog (!) . Nickname Einstein, however, left unchanged. But one of the requirements Scheinberg responded resolute refusal: call the film "Alien from Pluto." Sidney explained his proposal that the earlier have not yet rolled out grossing film with the word "future". Spielberg and Zemeckis called his idea "ridiculous" and Shainberg finally agreed that the breccia stupidity.
The project was very lucky with the actors - perhaps impossible to imagine in place Marty McFly someone other than Michael J. Fox, and the place of Dr. Brown's -. Someone other than Christopher Lloyd. All perfectly got used to their images.
The candidacy of Christopher Lloyd as Dr. Emmett Brown was offered a producer Neil Canton, who worked with Christopher in the 84-m on the film "The Adventures of Boukari Banzai Across the Eighth Dimension". Lloyd first turned down the role, but changed his mind as soon read the script. Actor copied his character with his mop of disheveled white hair and sweeping movements with the famous conductor Leopold Stokowski. Doc Brown is moving as if he were conducting an orchestra visible only to him. Plus - in Brown has something to Einstein, the more so that the script it - mad genius. He says the word "Gigawatt" as "Dzhigavatt" - just as it said a physicist when Zemeckis and Gale consulted with him about the research component of the plot.
Crispin Glover played the role of an ideal father Marty - George McFly. Most of the film he improvised, and, according to Zemeckis, so went into the role of self-doubt, scattered, "botany", that until he "could barely get through." Whatever it was, the image turned out just perfect.
was well and Lea Thompson in the role of a young Lorraine - romantic, sweet and innocent, it fits perfectly in the invented Gale and Zemeckis image. Lea hit the "Back to the Future" through comedy "Out of Control" (1984), in which she starred with Eric Stoltz, one of the favorites for the role of Marty McFly.
On the role of Biff Tannen first took JJ Cohen, but he seemed to Zemeckis' insufficiently tough guy. " With the result that it approved as one of the cronies Tannen, and the role of "bad guy" went to Thomas F. Wilson, an unknown young actor, who has previously appeared only in a small role in the television series "Knight Rider." Brilliantly performed the role of bullying husky Biff was his real breakthrough.
But the protagonist of a big problem. It turned out that Michael J. Fox, who in the opinion of the authors of the film is best suited for the role of Marty McFly (him Zemeckis met by chance, when he starred in the "wolf", and immediately pointed him as the candidate number one), was under contract for production the popular television series "Family ties," with great success coming out on NBC for seven seasons, from 1982 to 1989. And Michael has played in this series, one of the main roles. It was a huge problem - the producer of the series, David Goldberg, and would not hear of letting go in demand television actor to work on a feature film for several months.
Actually, he was sure that the rating of the show rests mainly on Fox. In spite of the ardent desire of Michael to appear in "Back to the Future" from his candidacy rejected. After that Zemeckis and Spielberg spent a lot of screen test for the role of Marty. Shooting continuously postponed due to the fact that Zemeckis could not determine the choice of the young actor, who will play a major role. Meanwhile, the situation grew tense, as charted out the film in May 1985, and yet the fall of the 84th shooting has not even begun. However, due to production difficulties later release date was postponed twice.
In the end, we took away two young candidates, the best performance at the tests - Thomas Howell (left), was filmed earlier in Spielberg's "ET" in the role of Tyler, and Coppola in "rogue" as Poniboya and Eric Stolz, very popular young actor from the television. When the director of the Universal watched their samples, he said: "Take Stolz. I was so sure he can handle it, that if something goes wrong - I'll give you a chance to re-shoot it all over again with another actor, "Finally, work began on the film.. Robert Zemeckis: "Stolz - a great actor. He played great, better and wish it was impossible. But with each new double and I clearly understood that Eric - not the Marty McFly, we came up with Bob, when we wrote the script. It was not a shadow of humor, which was luchitsya Marty. Eric was monstrous, murderous dramatic. Hereby Marty could only be Michael J. Fox. He did not even need to play - it just by itself was the same as our fictional hero. Eric did not like skateboard - and Michael rode on it since childhood ... I took not the easiest decision to stop working with Stolz after about a month after the start of work. It cost us $ 3 million. "
reshoot scenes made with Stolz added a tidy sum to the 14 millionth budget ... That was the price of a mistake made by Gale, Zemeckis and Spielberg at the stage of casting.
Michael J. Fox from the beginning, from the moment he read the script, expressed a great desire to work with Zemeckis on "Back to the Future", even though its wholly employment. He said so: "I am willing to work day and night, just take me to this film."
Then, in '84, was abandoned because of full inability to carve out at least a little time in his busy shooting schedule. But when after the dismissal Stolz project "Back to the Future" was hanging over the abyss, was nevertheless decided to include Michael's work. The actor agreed to work overtime. Marty McFly was literally a copy of himself ...
Michael immediately involved in the work, making all the scenes that were shot earlier with Stolz, in just two weeks. Finally, work on the film went underway. Fox worked for wear while participating in the filming of the evening and daytime scenes were shot at the weekend.
The director of extended night shifts was always in the "half-asleep" state. But nobody complained - all were under the charm of the unique atmosphere of the 50s ... In the original version of the protagonist engaged in video piracy, and in the past he moved with a time machine made from a refrigerator ...! Then the idea of a fridge decided to give up: Zemeckis was afraid that children would climb into a refrigerator under the impression of the film. It should be noted, he was right: the film made an unforgettable impression ...
When the writers turned to the idea of the time machine in the form of a car, they first thought it must be some all-terrain vehicle on tracks that could move in that time where there was no road. DeLorean appeared due to pure chance.
Zemeckis came up with a scene in which farming family in the fifties takes a time machine for a flying saucer, and an original low-volume sports car DMC-12 DeLorean with its rising up the doors and shiny skin looked quite futuristic stainless steel, to pass for unearthly technique in the eyes "ordinary Americans."
DeLorean DMC-12 - really existed sports car produced from 1981 to 1983. The design of the car was so unusual for the time, that confer him more "futuristic" for the film almost did not have to. Is that hitched a "nuclear reactor", or rather the old man body component Dodge Polaris, and hung with those found in a landfill aviadetalyami. Total filmmakers took three copies of the DeLorean, each of whom worked on the set for 100%.
To create a frost effect in just returned from a car trip using nitrogen - DeLorean literally frozen. Molten same traces left rushing off machine - the usual spilled fuel which is ignited manually. The filmmakers decided to use these relatively cheap effects, but has long been considered a version with stretch and shrink, like a rubber band, the DeLorean. But as a result of this special effect declined: to do it was expensive, long time, and today it probably would have looked hopelessly out of date.
"Adults" machines were not without toy doubles. The filmmakers have created a few layouts reduced DeLorean. They are suspended in the air on a special sleeve, plan on a blue screen, the place which is then superimposed the desired video clips. The same technique later used on the set of the second and third parts of the trilogy - all flying cars and trains are duplicated in the toy format with which filmmakers work much more convenient.
Modern moviegoers will probably be hard to believe, but in the whole picture has been used only 32 visual effects that are involved in the company ILM. For comparison, in "The Avengers" in 2200 visual effects in "Guardians of the Galaxy" 2750. Yes, there was a time when mainstream Hollywood movie could leave solely on the story and the actors, and not in the picture.
time travel has caused a lot of friends disputes. Start with the fact that this required enormous energy (1, 21 gigawatts), and for some time quite seriously discussed the idea that it was necessary to move ... to produce a nuclear explosion! Doc and Marty for this were to go to Nevada on a military training ground. But when it became clear that the scene was recorded with a nuclear explosion would cost one million dollars (for '84 it was an exorbitant amount), Gale and Zemeckis decided to come up with something completely different, less costly. And so was born the idea of lightning - the action does not go beyond the limits of Hill Valley, and also appeared in an episode of the clock, symbolizing time. It was a very good idea, and that it was embodied on the screen in glorious climactic scene.
One of the biggest items of expenditure are not toys steel and three "charged" DeLorean, and scenery. The entire town of Hill Valley is not related to any of the really existing settlements and has been created in an open pavilion of film studio Universal. Millions of dollars are spent on it to create a central square with all the decorations provided building scenario. In the first part of the brand new facades were first used for filming scenes that occurred in the 1950s. Only towards the end of the shooting period decorations specially old, to show the true, that is the middle of the 1980s.
artworks Lawrence Paul brilliantly recreated the atmosphere of the 50's: for this he had to learn a few hundreds of photos of the time and see more than a dozen taken in those years of films. The "Back to the Future" has a huge number of absolutely authentic details. Paul deliberately stepped back a little further into the past than the fifties, climbing almost to the end of the forties, because the real fifties still were not so archaic. Slight exaggeration film went to the benefit, enhance the effect of immersion in the past.
April 20 shooting ended successfully, but, of course, and there was nothing to think about how to release the film in May. The prime minister was postponed to August 85 th. But when the film was shown the test group, to preview, in the words of Frank Marshall producer, "the audience jumped up to the ceiling." As acknowledged by the same Marshall, "he could not remember such a preview." The prime minister was appointed on July 3. To meet the deadline, editors and dubbing professionals working around the clock.
At the assembly stage were cut some scenes - such as the one in which Marty looks like Lorraine debits on the exam, and one in which the George McFly gets stuck in a phone booth. Zemeckis almost cut out and the stage with rock performances Marty, but test audiences liked this scene so that he decided to leave it - as it turned out, did the right thing. When the company Lucas Industrial Light & Magic completed to produce special effects (there were only 32 in the whole movie), before the premiere stayed one week ...
Music - a real gem of a film. Brilliantly gifted composer Alan Silvestri, which Zemeckis has just worked on the film "Romancing the Stone", in "Back to the Future" just surpassed himself: the soundtrack, no doubt, become one of the most important components of the overall charming atmosphere. 98 people made up a grand orchestra, conducted by Alan - this composition on Universal never going to the studio. Later, Alan worked with Zemeckis on almost all its new projects. Music, despite the small scale of the events, was epic and impressive - Silvestri soundtrack deliberately made so heaped up specifically to impress Spielberg, who was not happy with the soundtrack of "Romancing the Stone". Hearing music Silvestri to the "Back to the Future", Spielberg had to admit that Alan - extraordinarily gifted composer.
And yet the day the authors of the "Back to the Future" was doubt about the success of their creations. Start with the fact that Michael J. Fox was not able to participate in the advertising picture (all of the same continuous shooting to "family ties", but this time in London). Besides, Gale was seriously embarrassed by the proposed studio flippant slogan: "My mom fell in love with me." But when the film was released in 1200 theaters across North America, beginning with the July 3, 1985 and for the next 11 (!) Weeks, he was the absolute leader of hire in the US.
Just one week ahead of his published in the August comedy with Chevy Chase "European Vacation", and then "Back to the Future" again took the lead. The success was amazing. In America alone, the film grossed 210 million (twice the wildest expectations), and worldwide distribution brought as much $ 380 million. It was a megahit on a planetary scale, and the highest-grossing film in the world in 1985.
However, no award can not be compared with national recognition and love that has found a picture. In various polls, "Back to the Future" is still regularly gets lists of the best fantasy films, and comedies. And no wonder - characters whose names have long since become a household name, a great sense of humor, cool soundtrack, style, will never lose its relevance of the topic of fathers and children, and of the role played by the choice of what we do in my life - all this makes " back to the future "one of the best representatives of their genre. And I think that if someone invents a time machine go into the future 30 years ahead, and there is "Back to the Future" will still love and remember.