Excursion to the Tobolsk Kremlin
• Excursion to the Tobolsk Kremlin
May be the same, can historical sites in Russia look like that they want to talk about, do delicious photos and recommend to visit friends. And not in Moscow, not in St. Petersburg, and in 2, 5 thousand kilometers east of the Urals. So it is not surprising that this place has become one of the winners of the federal competition "7 Wonders of Russia", and it is called the "pearl of Siberia".
Tobolsk Kremlin. It is not only the only stone citadel in Siberia, but also a unique complex of historic monuments, the value of which was the occasion for their inclusion in the list of federal cultural values of the country.
Sophia-Assumption Cathedral with sacristy, the bell tower, which is still the tallest building in Tobolsk, Bishop's house, white towers and walls, Rentereya, Vicar Palace, Gostiny Dvor, Prison lock - all this ensemble one of the most famous historical sites in Siberia ...
As the theater begins with a hanger, and large-scale attractions start with the surrounding area. Indeed, it often happens that the old palace or mansion, in general, is very personal, but that's about the untidy, destruction or cesspool.
"Suspicion" that this time it will not be, as is so often see, there was yet at the approaches to the Kremlin.
The ideal track, the ideal sidewalk tile, perfect beds, ideal bench ... Even somehow alarmed ...
The history of the white Kremlin begins in 1683, when Moscow came an experienced bricklayer Vasily Larionov, who brought a team of masons and under the leadership of the Siberian Metropolitan Paul began building the first stone church in Siberia - Sophia-Assumption Cathedral. Preparation for construction of the main cathedral in the Siberian stone was carried out for almost three years. In the vicinity of Tobolsk found lime required clay, rubble stone. Moscow sent a cohesive iron, church utensils, permission to take seven hundred rubles from Tobolsk treasury and allowing farmers to use in the construction, "but not in the plow time." And sent a sample of who should build the church - drawings and estimates of renewable while in the Moscow Kremlin Church of the Ascension.
In 1684, builders have already completed the drum major, but then "padosha the church pillars and arches, and broke off all pada top inside." Nevertheless, the work was completed in October 1686 the first stone church was consecrated in Siberia. Like its predecessor wood, new cathedral became known as the Assumption, but was later renamed St. Sophia. At the same time the construction and stone bell tower was completed. But she stood for a hundred and ten years. We know only that it was a massive Single tier structure, is located to the north-east of the cathedral.
What is the oldest building in Siberia, it gives even greater significance and without monumental temple on the top of Cape Trinity. Almost from the very foot of the cathedral goes steeply down stone Sophia vzvoz upstairs Runaround five domes, and a huge white cube bulk of the majestic motionless.
From downtown to the Kremlin is Sophia vzvoz. Today, it is one hundred ninety-eight steps of the wooden staircase, and above, after the massive arches Dmitrievsky gate - cobblestone road, sandwiched brick retaining walls. Sukhoi Log, cleaving in two Cape Trinity, always, from the very foundation of the city, has been used for entry into the mountain. The first hundred years vzvoz had no coverage, and in rainy weather clay soils do climbing it is very difficult. In 1671 there was the first wooden staircase, and in the 1750s the famous Siberian military engineer Ensign Volotsk Dragoons Jacob Ukusnikov developed a draft of a new wooden Sophia vzvoz "a very considerable distance." A few years built this chetyrehsotmetrovy vzvoz and had slopes of the upper part to strengthen the brick retaining walls in thirty years. It was very solid and monumental engineering structure: each wall extends for 110 meters, the height of the highest part was 14, 6 meters.
After entering the territory of the Kremlin, then you start to turn his head from side to side - there are white walls, there is a five-domed cathedral, there is a tower of Gostiny Dvor, where perfect manicured lawn. Involuntarily slips thought - we do in Tobolsk? This is not a castle in Leeds or Vitre? Take out the iPhone, check with Google Maps ... no, that's right, Tobolsk, Russia!
After passing the main entrance on the opposite side of the lawn and turned around, one can observe a complex of Sophia-Assumption Cathedral, bell tower, cathedral and the sacristy of the Cathedral of the Intercession of the winter.
Incidentally, the bell tower, built in the classical style and offers a rare selection of bells, the highest and most majestic building of Tobolsk. With it you can see the whole Tobolsk, at a glance. It is in the Tobolsk Kremlin once hung the famous "bell exile" - the alarm bell of Uglich, which called, szyvaya people after the assassination of False Dmitry, and that on the orders of Shuya "ripped tongue and ear", and then exiled to Tobolsk.
A from the trees peeking corner tower of Gostiny Dvor.
It is hard to imagine right now Tobolsk Kremlin without Gostiny Dvor, but in the way of its construction there was a serious obstacle. Merchants strongly protested against the building of Gostiny Dvor in the upper town. They were easier to sell at the bottom, near the bazaar and the Irtysh pier. Voivod referred the protest to Moscow, and back came the decision to build the Siberian order courtyard seating in the lower city. Soon, however, for unknown reasons, Siberian Department overturned that its decision and re-ordered to build a courtyard seating near the Kremlin separate fortress. After that Remezov using Tyutin finalized the draft, and masons Sharypina in 1703 began to build a stone courtyard seating in the place of the old shopping arcade.
Tobolsk Gostiny Dvor slightly less than in Moscow and is built in the tradition of the last century - in the form of a closed rectangle with corner towers, two gates, customs and chapel. The chapel was located over the main, the western gate, customs - on the east (both of them did not survive). For greater security, all sixty-seven and twenty-seven shops and cellars out only the courtyard, although at that time in Russia has already been built, and Gostiny Dvor different type - with external shops. Disposition Tobolsk Gostiny Dvor has a lot to do with the layout of Bukhara caravanserai. Perhaps it is not coincidental likeness. After all, Tobolsk, where converge the Irtysh and the Moscow-Siberian highway, while carried on an extensive trade and often received visitors from the Middle East and India. China, Afghanistan.
The construction of the shopping center cost the treasury 30 thousand rubles. But, as suggested merchants, he was badly positioned for trade, which has remained in the wooden benches of the lower quarter. After some time, the building was used not for its intended purpose: in the middle of the XVIII century, it housed the "Tatar Commission", the verbal court, prison and the cellars were flooded. After the repair shop and the cellars became lease visitors to the merchants, then there is placed a number of provincial agencies and the city's first breech pharmacy. In a fire in 1788 the building is quite badly damaged. At the same time they disappeared forever galleries and exterior stairs. At the end of the XVIII century in the arcade housed ammunition depot, government offices and part of the archive. In the drawings, Tobolsk in 1800 the former Gostiny Dvor is listed as a building official place. At the end of the century it housed the distribution center of the Tobolsk prison and exile. Since the beginning of the XX century to the present time, the archive is hosted in these ancient walls.
The monastic enclosure and the north-eastern tower of the Kremlin.
The stone walls around the Kremlin began to build immediately after the construction of the cathedral and the bell tower. Wall height of 4, 3 meters and a length of 620 meters with nine towers (seven round and two square) were built in ten years. They have surrounded the yard of the maximum perimeter dangerously approaching the brow of Cape Trinity. Built walls the same craftsmen who erected the St. Sophia Cathedral. Two crews worked simultaneously. The construction of the northern and eastern walls led Gabriel Tyutin. The southern and western walls built Gerasim Sharypina.
It is interesting that none of the towers and not one meter of the wall from the beginning bore no defensive function.
In the back yard is situated in a former consistory, the building in which the fate of heretics country, devoid of architectural delights, and restrained baroque classicism not give fancy roam and present its inhabitants - the seminarians.
In the vicinity of the male seminary can be acquainted with the life of future priests
Bishop's house in the Kremlin's ensemble has become a monument to the construction activities of the governor Chicherin, eighteen years of rule Siberia. Realizing the importance of architecture in the consolidation of power, forced the construction of a representative Tchitcherin bishop's house: a year after the defeat of Pugachev this building has already been completed. This building has survived to this day almost unchanged: the victim in the "big fire" in 1788, it was rebuilt in its original form.
In 1925, the local history museum was moved to the former bishop's house - one of the oldest and richest in Siberia. The museum has now become the center of a large research and enlightenment in the field.
The development of Siberia began with forts - the forerunner of the future of cities, including Tobolsk Kremlin with its
In the museum you can see a lot of dioramas and visualizations of different eras anthrax stories
Map of Siberia XVIII century. Somehow inverted - Kara Sea bottom, the territory of modern Kazakhstan at the top.
Then use the cards was made in this way, with an orientation to the south.
Tobolsk Kremlin complex is not only limited to the monuments inside the walls. Several are located outside and one of them - the fortress prison. Here the walls were no longer for beauty, because it was a prison, which operated until 1989. He remained one of the most violent revolution after Tobolsk prison. Her nickname krytkoy because the street prisoners almost did not go. Between the buildings is laid underground tunnel. On the one hand was the guard on the other - the conclusion, in order to prevent attacks. The walls of the prison of the castle go to six meters deep. It seems from this prison escape is impossible. Shoots were, but none successful. Now there is not only a museum, in one of the buildings of the prison in the former cells did hostel.
With the Kremlin walls and the edge of Cape Trinity stunning views of the lower town
In early September, in Siberia, already being felt autumn walking on their land colored tread
The streets of modern Tobolsk lower
There interwoven a variety of age - can meet and old wooden houses and stone two-storey buildings and modern residential apartment building ...
Facades curtained restoration canvas with painted windows
In the lower town is not probable concentration of churches
Talking about the visit, the Kremlin is open daily from 10.00 to 18.00, except on Monday, Tuesday, opening hours from 10.00 to 17.00. The ticket office closes an hour earlier.
Access to the - free. Site visits Tobolsk Historical and Architectural Museum-Reserve pay: for adults from 70 to 150 rubles, for students from 50 to 70 rubles.