How do air traffic controllers
• As the air traffic controllers working
Every year the number of air traffic is growing in Russia, both domestic and international routes. Opening up new areas, airports, countries continue to develop overseas airlines. People are used to fly: business trips, business trips, vacations - flights have long since become something ordinary. However, few of climbing the ladder to the side of the air passenger vessel thinks of and who actually runs all these huge flow of arriving and departing aircraft, and the manner in which the management of this enormous and continuously moving mechanism.
Today let's talk about this a little more detail on the example of Domodedovo Police Center, which is a subdivision of the Moscow Center AUVD.
The Center works to ensure the safety, regularity and efficiency of aircraft operations at Domodedovo aerodrome. Air traffic control at Domodedovo airport area is carried out by "TOWER" technology (HSE - Control Tower) in two languages: Russian and English
All that is happening on lotnom airfield, it occurs only under control and for the teams managers. This applies not only to aircraft pilots, but including the ground of technical services. It is true for all passengers is and remains completely invisible during the whole period of stay in the walls of the passenger terminal and on board the aircraft
After the plane ready for flight, the aircraft crew should obtain from the controller control tower permission for the flight. Next, have a few minutes before departure, the crew asks the taxi dispatcher permission to start the engines, and after receiving it starts preparing for takeoff. Taxi dispatcher also informs the route to the runway (MLA) and enables taxiing on the so-called pre-start - in place immediately before the taxiway strip
After a pre-launch session of the crew report the dispatcher taxi transfers aircraft under the control of the controller starts, which allows the busy executive launch, ie taxiing directly on the strip and the alignment of its center line, according to the conditions for take-off and after about readiness gives the crew report authorizes takeoff
After takeoff the plane comes under the control of the Moscow junction control center (MADTS). His consistent service managers: the circle and the lower approach that can make adjustments to the established procedure to exit the airway; The top approach, controlling the aircraft to their prescribed class tier and exit from the Moscow air zone (MVZ), and finally, dispatchers Area Control Center (ACC), which serve the aircraft at FL ...
A little more precisely on the talk start controllers in whose area of responsibility includes the airspace, comprising sectors of climb after take-off and final phase of the approach, as well as the maneuvering surface (runway and taxiways)
To date, the two parallel runways with courses 14L / 32R and 14R / 32L, on all four directions working instrument landing system (CSC) at the Domodedovo airport, allowing aircrafts, having on board the appropriate equipment, to automate the process of planting and ensure safety when meteorological conditions III-A ICAO categories (in the vertical visibility to 15 meters and the horizontal visibility to 200 meters)
At the same time, as a rule, work only two courses, which are mainly determined by the direction of the wind. But the priority is rate of 32 t. To. During landing on runway 32L and 32R easier to create spacing between aircraft while landing on the 14th the band room to maneuver restricts Moscow (flights over that below 8,000 meters is prohibited) and Vnukovo and Ramenskoye
To be effective, the existing two lanes will be put into operation another locator that has been built on the territory of the airport, but still is not conjugate with the existing air traffic control system TERKAS (TERCAS - Terminal and En-Route Control Automated System). Three radar: one in Domodedovo, Vnukovo and Sheremetyevo - provide full coverage of the cost center, the new radar will significantly improve the performance of existing systems and covers the range from the ground up to an altitude of 500 meters at the most precise possible level
There are plans to build a third runway, for future construction already reserved an area of 9550 hectares. Also in connection with the expansion and the increase in the number of lanes is planned to build a new control tower to 100 meters
Now the airport schedule is structured in such a way that, from 7 to 23 hours, each hour is made at least 40 take-off and landing operations, how to distribute the load over time can be more evenly. During the next year with the introduction of a new airspace structure in the cost center in the operating environment of both bands Domodedovo airport will be able to provide up to 90 takeoff and landing operations per hour. In 2013 reach peak load was 59 operations per hour
In general, the capacity of the airport is even higher than the approach can provide. This is due to more and to the fact that before the distribution of flights between airports MVZ determined mainly by taking into account the geographical principle: Sheremetyevo served the northern and north-westerly direction and all international flights, Vnukovo - the southern and south-eastern direction, Domodedovo - east
At the present time in the conditions of competition between the airports of the principle of geographical distribution of flows of aircraft is no longer the key, that along with the ban on flights over Moscow, in turn, increases the load on the cost center
The height of the existing tower is 42 meters, it can be seen from almost all the territory of the airport. Overview of the sections of the runway, which closed facilities, is provided by cameras
In a calm working atmosphere of the procedural ATC Hall, it is difficult to believe that the people behind the consoles - the representatives of one of the most stressful and demanding jobs!
The controller 6 shifts, each - 10 people: Head of Flight, Senior Manager and 8 controllers (this list structure, in fact 6-7 people working at the same time). Manager mode of operation must not exceed 36 hours per week. In place of the controllers out of schedule: daily, morning, night. When the output is performed to replace a 15-minute briefing, another 15 minutes spent on the reception / delivery duty.
After two hours put 20 minute break, and at high intensities near the airport capacity 10 minute break after every hour of operation. After a night shift provided three days off. Vacation is 28 basic and 39 additional days for harmful working conditions, which in total amounts to 67 days
The charming Natalya a few years of work on the tower in Domodedovo managed to visit many difficult situations - such a dispatcher job. But the thought of changing jobs will never arise. Even in her youth, she chose a profession that, and it could hardly be otherwise, when the whole family was working at the airport. Girls take the controllers used with great reluctance, but today the situation has leveled off. Young professionals today are very popular, and this problem does not exist
Each manager every two years passed a medical examination, and every three years required to obtain a certificate of English proficiency on the ICAO category IV. Retired managers come in 50 years, but this does not mean that the employee should immediately resign. If you allow the medical board, but she dispatchers is almost the same as that of the pilots of the civil courts, the people continue to work. The main criterion in this case is the health
At the time of shooting lane one controller controlled 14L, and adjacent (14R) - two. At this time, the 14L end of the strip were planned work, and landing on it was not made, respectively, and the load was smaller. While the band 14R worked on takeoff and landing, and it is served by two controller: Control Manager (works directly with aircraft crews - leads the radio) and Manager software (controlled traffic, provides interaction with other services, conducts ups Magazine / landings and helps control including working with runway lighting). employees engaged in the distribution of a senior manager, guided the current situation
ezhurny elektrosluzhby engineer checks the runway lighting (we hope that the work of this equipment will be able to get to know the next time).
Runway lights are regulated by the controller manually, depending on the meteorological visibility. On MeteoDisplay displayed visibility at three points: at the beginning, middle and end of the strip. The intensity of illumination is selected by the minimum meteorological visibility.
If the visibility is at least one point of less than 600 meters, the dispatcher informs the crew of its value in all three locations. If visibility in the range from 600 to 2000 meters - according to only one value (landing zone). If the visibility is more than 2000 meters - its value is not reported at all. All meteorological information visibility, including crews from automatic informant (ATIS - Automatic Terminal Information Service). Upon request, the crew of the aircraft intensity runway lights glow can be changed
In general, over time, the dispatcher work, passing aircraft control stage, transformed into service soon. Today, the main task of air traffic controllers is providing the crews of aeronautical and meteorological information as well as to prevent hazardous encounters
the method of vectoring is used for keeping the safety distance (to a greater extent during the approach). Vectoring - providing navigational guidance of aircraft by the crew's instructions specific courses based on the use of radar data. The main difference between stage vectoring from other phases of flight is the fact that the responsibility for navigation in this case takes on the manager.
Vectoring ends with no clear indication of the need for the crew to continue to browse through your media, or bred on a course that will allow yourself (by technical means of entering the system to land, such as CSC) to bring the aircraft to preplant straight or entering the visual maneuvering area. This change is carried out either course or speed
With the threat of reducing the interval to secure preplant straight dispatcher can give the aircraft command a missed approach. Considered safe range is 5 km, and for heavy aircraft (more than 136 tons) - 10 kilometers. The second possible reason for the team missed approach may be the presence of obstacles on the runway. In all other cases, the decision to leave in the second round takes the aircraft commander
The head of Traffic Services ATS Domodedovo center Viktor Sitnikov shows a graphic diagram, looking at that you can estimate the degree of regularity of air traffic. For comparison, the left diagram green and red stripes marked diurnal trajectory takeoffs and landings of aircraft at London's Heathrow Airport, and the diagram on the right in blue painted area of flight aircraft Moscow air zone
This is only a general framework for air traffic control at the airport, in one of the story is impossible to cover all the features of this complex and multi-layered system. But the important thing is that everything in it is subject to one common requirement - to ensure order and the safety of flights of aircraft. Performing just this global problem, coupled with the work of other services is the key to a pleasant flight for a passenger
Well, about the magnificent views from the control tower, and especially in the sunset hours, and even do not need to say enough one time to see - really have a place to relax view