• Antarctic scenery
Antarctica - a continent located in the south of the earth, bathed by the waters of the Southern Ocean. Scientists warn that the warming of the planet is now leading to irreversible melting of glaciers in the Antarctic.
Let's talk about Antarctica and see the melting Antarctic landscapes.
According to Academician Vladimir Mikhailovich Kotlyakov, ice cover of the continent formed no later than 5 million years ago, but more likely 30-35 million years ago.
20-meter height margin Wilkins Ice Shelf.
Antarctic ice sheet is the largest on the planet, and is superior to the closest size Greenlandic icecap on an area of approximately 10 times. In it is concentrated about 30 million cubic meters. km of ice, ie 90% of all land ice.
King George Island - the largest island of the South Shetland Islands. Precast fossil skeleton of a whale. Compiled by the famous French explorer Jacques Cousteau in 1979.
ice sheet in Antarctica contains about 80% of all the fresh water of the planet; if it is completely melted, sea levels will rise by nearly 60 meters.
Ice Shield has a dome shape. The average thickness of the ice - 2500-2800 m, reaching a maximum value in some areas of East Antarctica - 4800 m.
Mountain and the bay, which has been recently covered by the glacier Sheldon.
A feature of Antarctica is a large area of ice shelves (lower (blue) region of West Antarctica), which is ~ 10% of the area, towering above the sea level; These glaciers are the source of icebergs record size, much larger than the size of the icebergs of Greenland outlet glaciers. Transantarctic Mountains - a mountain range located across Antarctica between Cape Adare (north of Victoria Land) and Earth Coats. Separates East and West Antarctica. View from the airplane.
Antarctica has an extremely harsh cold climate. In East Antarctica, at the Soviet Antarctic station Vostok July 21, 1983 registered the lowest temperature on Earth in the history of meteorological measurements: 89, 2 degrees below zero. The area is considered a pole of the Earth's cold.
The locals on the shore of Commonwealth Bay in Antarctica.
The glaciers on the island of the archipelago South Shetland Islands.
In addition to the cold pole in Antarctica located the lowest point relative humidity, the most powerful and long-lasting wind, solar radiation is most intense.
Marginal Weddell Sea Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean, off the coast of West Antarctica.
The average height of the surface of Antarctica - the largest of all continents.
Penguins on ice floes residue near the French station Dumont d'Urville in East Antarctica.
There are several versions of warming. First - global warming, which is that the average temperature on Earth has risen at 0, 7 ° C since the beginning of the industrial revolution (the second half of the XVIII century), and that "a large proportion of observed warming over the last 50 years is attributable to the activities of human. "
Glacier at Cape Evans.
Knox Coast - part of the coast of Wilkes Land in East Antarctica. Previously, the entire territory of Knox Coast, with the exception of the Bunger Hills, was covered with solid ice cover, rising at an altitude of over 1,500 meters.
Opponents of the concept of anthropogenic global warming and the greenhouse effect, argue that the observed increase in the average annual temperature - cyclic natural processes taking place on Earth, and they have nothing to do with human activity. If we compare the human factor and the energy of the sun, it is simply incomparable value.
Scientists in Antarctica, January 18, 2009.
But anyway, there is a gradual increase in the average temperature.
Giant tabular icebergs broken away from the Antarctic ice shelf.
Two Adelie penguin on the remaining piece of ice, East Antarctica, January 1, 2010.
As a result of global warming on the Antarctic Peninsula began to actively shape the tundra. Scientists predict that in 100 years the first trees can appear in Antarctica.
Huge iceberg broke away from the Knox Coast, January 11, 2008.
In the photo below - largest glacier in the West Antarctic - Glacier Tveytsa - may completely melt within a few hundred years, and it will increase the sea level by 60 centimeters. Five other glaciers in the Amundsen Sea are not far behind and is likely to also disappear in the next century. Together, these processes can raise the water level in the meter. With such news made by May 12, 2014, two independent groups of scientists.
In some places, the glacier is already lost in the thickness of a few meters per year. And it can completely disappear after 200-500 years, in the best case - a thousand-odd years.
A giant iceberg B-31, the size of Singapore, has broken away in November 2013 from the glacier Pine Island in Antarctica.
A crack in Pine Island Glacier, 2011. A significant change in the thickness of the Pine Island glacier and the surrounding ice was recorded with the help of satellite measurements.
According to NASA's opinion, if the melt all the ice of West Antarctica, the water level in the oceans would rise by 13 feet (3.9 meters), but this process will take a century. If the water level rises to 12 feet, then 73% of Miami will be underwater and 22% in New York and 20% in Los Angeles.
Giant tabular icebergs in Vincennes Bay, 11 January 2008.
Oceans captures the planet. It is believed that from 1993 to 2010. annually water levels increased by an average of 1.1 millimeters under the influence of thermal expansion of the ocean. At the moment, the contribution of this factor in the rise of water level in the oceans is much more serious than even the contribution of melting of Antarctica, which is only 0.27 millimeters.
Cape Denison in Antarctica, December 12, 2009.
Even some locals. Seals at Cape Denison in Commonwealth Bay, East Antarctica, January 1, 2010.
Iceberg B-15A - is the largest fragment of an even larger iceberg B-15, broke away from the ice shelf in the same Ross Sea in 2000.
The scientific ship "Akademik Shokalsky" locked in Antarctic iceberg fragments of December 24, 2013. He then moved to the aid of several powerful warships.
Telescope at the Amundsen-Scott - operating since 1956 permanently inhabited US Antarctic station at the South Pole.
Antarctica. View from space.