How to test the strength of aircraft

• How to test on the aircraft strength

Create any aircraft - a process long and complex, the result of joint efforts of the vast collective set of divisions and departments. Ilyushin Aviation Complex, along with the experimental design bureau, includes a large number of structural laboratories required for the full tests, including very important for the future of the aircraft - the tests for strength design.

How to test the strength of aircraft

In the static and fatigue tests of specimens of experienced product design conclusions are confirmed experimentally. Tests confirm the correctness of the design process for a given load, and the question of the correctness of the load is solved by flight tests of strength, which has been held for experts in the FRI with experts office. Today, a closer look at it with such a complex.

He met us and spent a tour of the deputy chief of the laboratory strength tests complex "AK Ilyushin them", PhD - Vladimir Tkachenko ...

How to test the strength of aircraft

Vladimir Ivanovich told about the kinds of strength tests, and in particular those studies that are carried out in this laboratory.

There are two independent disciplines of strength calculations - calculation of the static strength and the calculation of the resource. Static tests, under which elements in the airframe operational load exceeds 1, 5 times. wing loading during flights of more than 1000 tons. Create as close design conditions due to the stress-strain state of the structure.

Operational load in the calculations shall be equal to 67% (it comes out of the airworthiness standards). If, for example, multiply this value by a safety factor (for calculation shall be the figure - 1, 5, which takes into account resource glider) then just get 100% of rated load, although such a load never occurs during the flight ...

How to test the strength of aircraft

A wing as the most damaging part of the aircraft structure is tested with the calculated loadings up to 120%. The fuselage, although it has a different design cutouts and cavities, and seemingly should have less strength, is not subject to such loads that gets the wing in flight. Therefore, it is enough for the tests with 100% load ...

How to test the strength of aircraft

This Il-76TD (RA-76751), released in 1988, first flew in "Aeroflot" and managed to bump 2500 hours, and in 1994, after landing at Khodynka, entered the bureau's disposal for the installation and flyby new PS-90.

However, this car engines have not found, and it was decided to leave the board for testing the resource. To this end, a special program has been developed. A similar program is now conducted and endurance testing IL-476 ...

How to test the strength of aircraft

IL-76 was originally designed for 20,000 flights. But in order to provide him with such characteristics, it was necessary to carry out the whole range of strength, and then the endurance test. And then, to this day, continue to carry out tests already for extending the life of ...

How to test the strength of aircraft

Such studies are carried out and in the laboratory. With the aircraft landing gear. Aircraft suspended under powerful beams on special hangers, which are incorporated in and hydraulic cylinders capable of generating a load of ten tons per structural element. automatic tracking system developed jointly with TsAGI, to stabilize the suspension and to provide the required Flight status.

The efforts of these hydraulic cylinders are proportional to their diameters. Load with additional beams and brackets evenly distributed on the elements of design. On the left wing semispan pylons left under standard engines D-30, while on the right - pylons and installed reinforced structural elements and fastening assemblies for engines PS-90, which is heavier and stronger than 30s ...

How to test the strength of aircraft

On average, for the determination of the resource taking into account the flight duration of 3-4 hours and a service life of 20-25 years. These values ​​confirmed first. In the future, we have to increase the resource, begin to carry out additional tests that can last for years. Typically, as a resource material (corrosion, fatigue, wear) less than the flight, and prolong a resource difficult. Now flying IL-76 with engines D-30 test results extended life of up to 10,000 hours ...

How to test the strength of aircraft

The program flight usually lasts 20 minutes and runs at full load on the structural elements of the wing and the fuselage (wing loading performed with reliability factor 2). Wing subjected to various pressures and fluctuations by acting hydraulic cylinders. The load for the calculation is added to all of the cylinders. In the final stage of flight of the wing impact pressure load simulating a landing. Under the program, which is now practiced on the 76th, it is necessary to perform such flights 20000 ...

How to test the strength of aircraft

In the event of damage to the test stops, and the unit is made repairs. After this test, the process is resumed. Structural damage and the individual elements are identified in various ways as a visual (if large) and the instrument (there are a few special techniques), able to find even the smallest cracks ...

How to test the strength of aircraft

In general, the more prolonged life, the more imposing restrictions on the operation of the aircraft. For example, limit the flights due to weather conditions or converted from passenger to freight flights ...

How to test the strength of aircraft

They looked and inside the aircraft. To create a load on the floor in various locations ring stacked loads ...

How to test the strength of aircraft

Place the navigator and re-loads on the floor ...

How to test the strength of aircraft

throughout the cabin stretched the wiring harnesses from the instrumentation sensors ...

How to test the strength of aircraft

on the wing through the window view, entangled network of beams, brackets and wires ...

How to test the strength of aircraft

The study of the entrails of the aircraft was not without careful local "supervisor";)

How to test the strength of aircraft

At detection of cracks of fixing or eliminating possible now with the help of adhesive techniques, the so-called "stoppers". Such innovations have begun since the establishment of the wing and the test for IL-86, which has required the development of other, higher-strength characteristics ...

How to test the strength of aircraft

At present, in operation all over the world it is still a very large number of IL-76, including that of foreign operators, which in turn requires additional research on the resource. Therefore, these types of strength tests on this machine will go on and on ...

How to test the strength of aircraft

Below - two new pylons under the PS-90, passed factory for installation and test of strength ...

How to test the strength of aircraft

All the wing hung with various levers and counterweights, united into a single complex system ...

How to test the strength of aircraft

From this cabin located at an altitude of a few meters from the floor, the operator manages testing programs.

There are two cabins built in the hangar ...

How to test the strength of aircraft

Well, then we met another awesome plane - wooden full-size mock IL-96-300, created primarily to meet the challenges of cabin layout.

How to test the strength of aircraft

In the layout, even recreated part of the wing and the engine ...

How to test the strength of aircraft

Not only the interior, but the exterior design features are modeled in detail ...

How to test the strength of aircraft

climbed aboard, first look in the cabin, because it is also available in the layout ...

How to test the strength of aircraft

Inside, at first glance, it looks as in the present 96-m. The differences become noticeable only upon close examination. For manufacturing, in most cases, used wood and plywood. Although some places are established and the real elements of interior lining ...

How to test the strength of aircraft

Beauty, as in the present Ile somewhat. Space inside enough. It is said that this layout was also used in the development of the internal equipment interior presidential Il-96 ...

How to test the strength of aircraft

In the frame below - 103rd machine (five-IL-103), which has already passed the entire volume of the test, and is now also in this department, nestled next to his older sister ...

How to test the strength of aircraft

And finally, one more general view of the lab ...

How to test the strength of aircraft