How to produce aircraft engines in Russia
• How to produce aircraft engines in Russia
JSC "Ufa Engine Industrial Association" - the largest developer and manufacturer of aircraft engines in Russia. There are more than 20 thousand people. UMPO part of United Engine Corporation.
The main activities are the development, production, maintenance and repair of jet aircraft engines, manufacture and repair of knots of helicopters, production of equipment for the oil and gas industry.
UMPO serially produces turbojet engines AL-41F-1S for the Su-35S, engines AL-31F and AL-31FP engines for the Su-27 and Su-30, individual components for helicopters "Ka" and "Mi", al-gas turbine drives 31ST for gas pumping stations of OJSC "Gazprom".
Under the direction of association being developed for advanced engine fighter fifth generation PAK FA (Sukhoi PAK FA, T-50). UMPO involved in cooperation for the production of engine PD-14 to the new Russian passenger aircraft MS-21, the program of production of helicopter engines VK-2500, in the reconfiguration of the production engine RD for MiG aircraft.
Welding in habitable chamber "Atmosphere-24"
Interestingly engine production step is argon arc welding the most critical node in the habitable chamber, providing full tightness and accuracy of the weld. Especially for UMPO Leningrad Institute "Prometheus" is one of Russia's largest welding station established in 1981, consisting of two units' Atmosphere-24. "
According to sanitary standards worker may spend no more than 4 in the chamber 5 hours per day. In the morning - check suits, medical control, and only then can you start welding.
Welders are sent to the "atmosphere-24" in the light space suits. Through the first door of the gateway they are held in camera, they attach hoses with air, close the door and passed into argon chamber. Once it will displace air welders open the second door, enter the cell and start working.
In the non-oxidizing environment of pure argon begins welding of titanium.
A controlled composition of impurities in argon allows to obtain high-quality welds and improve the fatigue strength of welded structures, enables podvarki in the most remote locations through the use of welding torches without the use of protective nozzles.
In full dress welder, indeed, like a cosmonaut. To obtain a permit to work in the inhabited chamber, the workers held a training course, at first they were full gear train on the air. Usually, two weeks is enough to understand, good man for the job or not - it can withstand the load not everyone.
Always in touch with welders - expert witness for a while from the control panel.
The operator controls the welding current, the system monitors the gas analysis chamber and the common state and worker.
No other method of manual welding does not allow such a result, as welding in the habitable chamber. weld quality speaks for itself.
Electron beam welding.
Electron beam welding in a vacuum - a fully automated process. In UMPO he carried on Ebokam installations. At the same time two or three welded seam, and with a minimum level of deformation and changes in part geometry.
One specialist working simultaneously on several plants of electron-beam welding.
Details of the combustion chamber, the rotary nozzles and nozzle vanes blocks require applying thermal barrier coatings plasma method. For these purposes the robotic system TSZP-MF-P-1000.
As part UMPO 5 tool shops a total of about 2,500 people. They are engaged in manufacturing of technological equipment. Here create a machine accessories, dies for hot and cold metals, cutting tools, measuring tools, molds for the casting of ferrous and non-ferrous alloys.
Mold making for blade casting is performed on CNC machines.
Now for the creation of molds need only two or three months, but before this process took six months and longer.
An automated means for measuring detects the smallest deviations from the norm. Details modern engine and tools to be manufactured to extremely exact observance of all sizes.
The vacuum carburizing.
Automating processes always involves a reduction of costs and improvement of the quality of work performed. This also applies to the vacuum carburization. Carburizing - the surface of the carbon saturation of parts and enhance their strength - using vacuum oven Ipsen.
In order to service the furnace only one employee. Items tested thermochemical treatment for several hours and then become perfectly strong. UMPO experts have created their own program, which enables cementing with increased accuracy.
Production in the foundry starts with the manufacture of models. Of special compacted mass model for parts of different sizes and configurations with subsequent manual finishing.
In the area of manufacturing investment patterns operate primarily women.
banding model blocks and obtaining ceramic forms - an important part of the process of the foundry process.
Before filling the ceramic mold calcined in furnaces.
calcined ceramic forms - it is waiting for further casting alloy.
So looks drenched alloy ceramic mold.
"weight in gold" - is a blade with a monocrystalline structure. Technology of production of such a blade is complicated, but it works and expensive in all respects much longer piece. Each blade "grown" using a special primer of the nickel-tungsten alloy.
The plot of wide processing hollow fan blade
For the production of hollow wide engine fan blades
PD-14 - driver install MS-21 perspective of civil aircraft -
, a special portion where cutting is performed and machining of blanks made of titanium plates, the final machining of the lock and the profile of the blade, including its mechanical grinding and polishing.
On chetyrohkoordinatnom horizontal machining center introduced finishing technology end of the blade on the device, designed and manufactured in UMPO - the know-how of the enterprise.
The complex manufacturing compressor and turbine rotors (KPRTK) - a localization available capacity to generate the principal components of a jet drive.
The assembly of turbine rotors - a time consuming process requiring special craftsmanship. High precision machining connection "shaft-drive-toe" - a guarantee of long-term and reliable operation of the engine.
The multistage rotor going into a whole it is in KPRTK.
rotor balancing is carried out by representatives of a unique profession that you can fully master the only factory walls.
The production of pipes and tubes To all motor units functioned smoothly - compressor discharge, the turbine spun, nozzle camouflaged or open, you need to give commands to them. "The blood vessels' plane of the heart are considered pipelines - is very different information is transmitted on them. In UMPO there shop, which specializes in the manufacture of these "vessels" - different-sized pipes and tubes.
In the manufacturing of tubes mini-plant requires manual piece of work - some of the details are real handmade works of art.
Many operations benders performs machine with CNC Bend Master 42 MRV. It yoke tube made of titanium and stainless steel. First, determine the geometry of the pipe by using a contactless technology standard. The received data are sent to the machine which makes the preliminary bending, or at the factory language - gib. After an adjustment gib and final tube.
So look handset is already in the composition of the finished engine - they entwine him like a spider web, and each performs its task.
In the assembly shop of the individual parts and assemblies become the whole engine. It employs Smith the highest caliber.
collected on different parts of the shop large modules are joined collectors together.
The final stage of the assembly is to install reducers with the fuel-regulating devices, communications and electrical equipment.
a mandatory check for alignment (to avoid possible vibrations), alignment, since all the parts are supplied from different departments.
After the bearer test engine is returned to the assembly shop for disassembly, washing and fault detection. First product disassembled and washed with petrol. Then - the external inspection, measurements, specific control methods. Part of components and assembly units to be sent in the same inspection-shops manufacturers. Then the engine is collected again - acceptance tests.
fitter assembles a large module.
Locksmiths MCP perform the assembly of the greatest creations of engineering thought of the XX century - turbojet - manually strictly referring to the technology.
Technical Control Department is responsible for the impeccable quality of all products. Controllers work in all areas, including - in the assembly shop.
In a separate portion was collected rotary jet nozzle (ORS) - an important design element that distinguishes the engine AL-31FP from its precursor AL-31F.
The resource works PRS - 500 hours, and the engine - in 1000, so the nozzle should be done twice.
A special mini-stand verify nozzle performance and its individual parts.
The engine, equipped with PRS, the aircraft provides greater maneuverability. The nozzle itself looks pretty impressive.
In the assembly shop has a section, which displays the reference sample of engines that were manufactured and produced the last 20-25 years.
The test engines.
aircraft engine test - the final and very important stage in the processing chain. In a specialized workshop conducted bearer and acceptance tests on stands equipped with modern automated process control systems.
In the engine test is used automated information-measuring system, consisting of three computers connected to the same local area network. Verifiers control parameters of the engine and bench systems exclusively on the testimony of a computer. Real-time processing of the test results produced. All of the tests carried out information stored in a computer database.
The assembled engine is tested according to the technology. The process may take several days, after which the engine disassembled, washed, defektiruyut.
All of the tests carried out information is processed and issued in the form of reports, charts, tables, both electronically and in hard copy.
Appearance test shop: once the test rumble woke the whole neighborhood, and now does not get out a single sound.
Shop number 40 - a place where all the products UMPO sent to the customer. But not only - here performed the final acceptance of products, equipment, entrance control, preservation, packaging.
AL-31F engine is sent to the packaging.
Engine expects neat wrap in layers of packaging paper and polyethylene, but it is not everything.
The engines are placed in them are designed for special packaging is labeled according to the product type. After packing the equipment goes accompanying technical documentation: passports, forms, and so forth.
The engine in action!