Tepuis - where no man has gone before
Do you know that in the picture? Do you think this is some kind of drawn out of sci-fi movie? And here and there. I'll tell you. This photo continues the theme of the Lost World Mount Roraima (Roraima) and Angel Falls (Angel Falls)
It turns left on the planet really Lost worlds where no man has gone before.
In the south-eastern part of Venezuela is one of the most amazing places on the planet. In an environment of savannah and jungle safely hidden from the eyes of people isolated landscape with unique fauna and flora. This area is known as the "tepui", which has received from the same tribe of Indians who once lived in these places.
or tepui tepuy (type) - Table Mountain, located in the Guiana Highlands in South America, mainly in Venezuela.
The word "tepuis" in the language of Pemon Indians who inhabit the Gran Sabana, means "home of the gods." Tepuis for the most part are isolated from each other, towering over the jungle cliffs difficult to access, making them carriers of a unique set of endemic plants and animals.
Scientists say that these mountains are composed of hard sandstone with steep, almost vertical slopes and flat, truncated corners - the oldest in the world. They were formed as a result of the destruction of the vast plateau in prehistoric times stretching from the Atlantic coast to the borders of river basins of the Orinoco, Amazon and Rio Negro. Back in the days when Africa and South America were one, about 200 million years ago, this plateau occurred at the site of a giant lake.
The plateau composed of sandstone and was located on a granite base; over time, erosion has transformed the plateau several Monadnock, of which formed tepuis covered rocks resistant to erosion.
Similar funnel available in several tepuis, they were formed after the rains washed vaults of caves, consisting of sandstone. Is the deepest cave "Abismo Guy Collet", a depth of 671 m.
By the way, the analysis of water that accumulates in natural lakes in the tepuis, is of excellent quality. Typically, tepuis consist of a single unit Precambrian sandstone or quartzite, which sharply soars above the surrounding jungle to altitudes above 2000 m. In many Tepui are washed with water caves, such as cave Abismo Guy-Collet (Engl. Abismo Guy Collet) depth 671 m, as well as sinkholes diameter of 300 m formed during collapse of the arches of tunnels and underground rivers.
German researcher Robert Schomburgk visited the area in 1835. He was struck by the mesas, but attempts to climb on one of them failed. Only half a century later, in 1884, a British expedition led by Everard Im Thurn was able to climb to the top of Mount Roraima.
However, it is a report about the expedition of Robert Schomburgk tepuis in the area inspired the writer Sir Arthur Conan Doyle to write the novel "The Lost World," the opening of a plateau inhabited by prehistoric animal and plant species. In 1912, the writer has read the reports of the mountains found in South America and was so impressed that sat down to write a new novel. Described in the book lost in the jungle plateau indeed has a lot to do with the tepui.
In many tepuis are sinkholes diameter of 300 m formed during collapse of the arches of tunnels and underground rivers, and washed with water caves, such as cave "Abismo Guy Collet" depth of 671 m.
is the largest of Auyantepui tepuy, and its area is about 700 square meters. km! It is on this plateau is Angel Falls, which is the highest waterfall in the world. Angel originates on the mountain Auyan and breaks down into the abyss from a height of 979 meters, and continuous drop height is as much as 807 meters! The height of this waterfall twice the Empire State Building and the Eiffel Tower three times! A large drop height - 979 meters - leads to the fact that, before reaching the surface of the earth, the water breaks down into tiny splashes and becomes a thick fog that envelops the surrounding countryside.
One of the most beautiful tepuy - out - towers over the forest and the rocks at 1300 meters. It is especially the fact that permeated through the cave, going from one end to the other. Plateau outs adorn the dark-gray rocks of different shapes, and the surrounding craters fill with clean water.
plateau mountain is completely isolated from the forest at the foot, which makes them "ecological islands", which is now preserved endemic species of flora and fauna, for thousands of years developed in isolation.
Another famous tepui is Mount Sarisarinyama, which is full of perfectly circular craters depth and diameter of several hundred meters. At the bottom of these craters grow unique plants that do not occur anywhere else in the world!
Funnels with crystal clear water are ubiquitous in many tepuis.
Abismo Guy-Collet (Eng. Abismo Guy Collet)
Different sandstone layers are destroyed at different rates, so the plateau formed thousands of bizarre rocks.
The most famous tepuis received through bizarre rock formations that soar up to a height of 1, 5-2 km, and have absolutely flat tops. Researchers have found that earlier all these rocks were the only one plateau. However, over time, erosion has destroyed his integrity, and instead of the plateau appeared several bizarre rocks.
For example, each peak of the mountain really is unique, because it appears to grow a wide variety of plant species that have survived since prehistoric times already. This was only possible thanks to insulation of each mountain apart. Most of the rocks are a good distance from each other, towering over the green cloth of the jungle. The most famous rock: Auyatepuy, Roraima and out.
The most high tepuis are Piso de Neblina (3014 m), Pico Phelps (2992 meters), Roraima (2810 meters) and Cerro Marauaka (2800 meters).
Tepui out is known throughout the world thanks to the huge cave that literally permeates the mountain on the one side to the other. The height is 1300 meters out, and the mountain rises majestically above the forest. Some of the tepuis well researched, while others have never gone before! Tepuis are still unexplored and of great interest to scientists.
In general, this area is not only incredibly beautiful, but also very isolated and removed. To get to the tepuis is not so easy, as will have to cover hundreds of kilometers of virgin forests of South America. In addition, the tepuis without special climbing equipment just does not get up!
Roraima - the highest tepui in Venezuela. Its height is 2810 meters, and the top - the plateau area of 34 square kilometers - completely covered with dense vegetation, bizarre rocks, steep valleys, caves, small lakes and swamps. Local Indians called Mount Roraima "navel of the earth" and believe that lives on top of the progenitor of the human race - the goddess Queen.
These three, as well as many other lesser-known but no less beautiful tepuy are in the Canaima National Park, which lies in the south-eastern part of Venezuela, at the junction of Brazil and Guyana. Reserve, stored on its territory priceless natural wealth, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Nature Canaima National Park, extraordinarily diverse and unique. Besides the majestic mesas, adorned with beautiful waterfalls in the park you can see rare species of flora and fauna that are found exclusively in this area. For example, carnivorous plants, lured to their beautiful fragrant insect traps and eats them. Base and twined slopes surround clouds timber in which allocated fine bright spots bromeliads, and orchids. On the tops of tepuy wildly growing herbs and shrubs. No less rich fauna of the Venezuelan park - here there are monkeys, a variety of sizes and types, jaguars, giant ants and a variety of small animals. But the greatest diversity of species boasts the world of birds that live in large numbers on this rich land.
The largest nature reserve in Venezuela, Canaima National Park, was founded in 1962 and is considered the oldest part of the earth, whose age is more than 2 million years. This lost world as if by chance preserved the way it was many millions of years ago, thousands of tourists visit daily.
The National Park Canaima leisure offers fascinating excursions on canoe across the lagoon, which empties into four waterfalls. Two of them - Golondrina and Ukayma - can be seen, sailing, canoeing, and under the other two - Acha and Sapo - paved path along which you can go inside the waterfall between the stormy stream of water and rock:
You can go to one of the most spectacular attractions of the park - Angel Falls, tours to which are carried out either by boat or by plane. If you go on a boat tour, along the way you can see the beautiful Orchid Island.
Those who wish to become better acquainted with the life of the aborigines of this land, you can go to the northern part of Canaima, where the Indian settlement "Pemon". Where you have a unique opportunity to plunge into the unknown culture, to communicate with the natives, to get acquainted with their ceremonies, traditions, legends and way of life, which has been preserved since ancient times.
Among other things, this area is shrouded in an aura of mystery and riddles, which tells not only ancient legends and myths, but also reports of several expeditions, organized a daring explorer. The last major official expedition into those hard to reach places, namely the mountain Roraima, was formed in 1965 by the son of the famous Juan Angel, pioneer of the world's highest waterfall. The diary expedition described wonderful world, wherein the flat surface is covered mountaintop bizarre hills, with a shape similar fungi, dispersed throughout unusual depressions filled with water, and is already known to science except animal creature unusual was found, which was named cadborosaurus. Unprecedented beast had a horse's head and a snake's body with a hump on his back. Here it was found the frog, the eggs hatch, nasekomye- bloodsuckers that do not operate any chemical remedies, ants giants longer than 5 cm, capable of its steel teeth bite small branches of trees.
The biggest discovery for the scientists was the discovery of the remains of ancient animals that have recently lived in these places. There is an assumption that they were killed as a result of experiments, aliens. On a hunch it prompted scientists discovered a large circular platform expedition devoid of vegetation and very often studded with silver powder of unknown origin. Later laboratory studies have shown that an alloy of rare metals, which in terrestrial conditions to create a simply unrealistic.
In a study of cave explorers large number of cave paintings have been found depicting imaginary animals and beings, vaguely similar to humans. Members of the expedition found a few crypts, within which was a thick fog and sweet scent hovered. Some members of the team, inhaling the scent of this strange, for several days in a coma, and when she awoke, told his colleagues on the unbelievable visions and journeys to other worlds.
After this incident, it was decided to go back, but there is a new surprise waiting for travelers: they could not find a way out of this vicious world as if some mysterious force in every way interfere with this.
Only a few months later, exhausted Finding a way people could return home. They claim that they were helped by some unknown force that picked them up and slowly lowered to the central area of one of the Indian settlements.
When scientists finally made it to civilization, we discovered that the family had long lost hope for their return: after the expedition, which was meant to come back after a few months of work, was absent for four years.
For a long time in this region are not organized the expedition, but today this lost world before inspiring fear in people, visited daily by several dozen adventurers. Only for safety reasons, it is desirable to make the ascent, accompanied by an experienced guide.
Here is an artistic representation of these places: