10 facts about the solar system, you need to know
From the school course we know that all the planets in our solar system is separated by weight, on the sun are giant storms and that the gas giants is also a huge raging storms. But modern astronomy over the past few years has been actively developed, leading to a breathtaking discovery.
1. The surface of Mars
Mars strongly underestimated: modern astronomers are discussing the possibility that Mars could once be home to the ancient forms of bacteria or oceans of liquid water. More recently, it became known that many species first appeared on Earth microbes arose on Mars, and only then hit the Earth with the help of asteroids.
Sometimes we see in the media some of the most mind-blowing pictures of strange features of the surface of the Red Planet, and all this strengthens the interest in Mars as a planet with a mysterious past. In 2006, the year in Mars orbit started working station "Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter", and its camera to make unbelievable shots of many regions of the planet.
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter
In the picture below you can see "tracks" left by a huge dust devils - Martian equivalent of a tornado. They are blown off the top layer of soil, consisting essentially of iron oxide (substance just responsible for the hue red soil), opening look dark gray basalt layers.
2. The missing planet
Astronomers have long noticed discrepancies in the orbits of the outer gas giants, which, in particular, contrary to the majority of our models, depicting the early years after the formation of the solar system. There is a hypothesis that before the solar system was still a planet mass of several tens of earth. Hypothetical planet, sometimes called Tycho, probably, was thrown out of the solar system billions of years ago in interstellar space, where it is destined to be worn between the systems until the end of time.
This planet could be located in the billions of kilometers beyond the orbit of Pluto in the region, is poorly illuminated by the sun. Its orbit was elliptical, and to make one revolution around the Sun, it required millions of years. Taken together, these factors explain why such a planet would be impossible to detect.
3. Diamond rain on Neptune and Uranus
In addition to the mystery enveloping the strange orbits of these planets, there is another: they both have magnetic poles, as much as 60 ° shifted off to the side of their geological poles. One explanation for this is that once the planet faced or swallowed another unknown planet.
Based on the information about a strange tilted Uranus and Neptune, as well as a large concentration of carbon in their atmospheres, astronomers believe that Neptune and Uranus have vast oceans of liquid carbon drifting on the waves of solid diamond icebergs. Also on these planets might rain of tiny diamond pieces.
4. The land is shrouded by a halo of dark matter
Dark matter - one of the deepest mysteries of modern cosmology. Astronomers know that we are missing something very important, you need to decrypt its properties, but we know that dark matter makes up a huge part of the total mass of the universe.
we already know something about the properties of dark matter: in particular, it serves as an anchor, holding the galaxy and solar system together. Thus, dark matter also plays a role in the inner workings of our solar system, which is especially noticeable when observing its effects on space-based technologies. A phenomenon known as "flyby anomaly," proves that some of our spacecraft and satellites inexplicably change their orbital speeds during the flight to Earth or from Earth. Indirectly, this proves that the Earth is shrouded in a huge halo of dark matter: if the dark matter is visible at optical wavelengths, the halo would be comparable in size to Jupiter.
5. On Titan, you could attach to the back wings and fly
Titanium, Saturn, - one of the most beautiful places in the solar system: rain falls on it from the gaseous substance, and it is possible to see a greater concentration of liquid methane and ethane at its surface.
It seems that does not sound too appealing for a space traveler. However, the benefit of the Titan says a surprising combination of low gravity on its surface and low atmospheric pressure: if the people on Titan has attached itself to the back of artificial wings, they could fly. Of course, so far without the proper equipment to be on Titan is extremely dangerous, but what is death, compared with the flight?
6. Our solar system has a tail
A month ago, one of NASA missions have revealed the presence of the tail of the solar system, is shaped like a four-leaf clover.
Tail, called gelioteyl consists of neutral particles, which can not be seen by conventional means. Thus, to get the right image of the particles have a need for special tools. Scientists had to make several individual images, and then connect them together to get the whole picture.
Gelioteyl extends over 13 billion kilometers outside the farthest planet, due to strong winds particles traveling outside the solar system in all directions at a speed of 1, 6 million kilometers / hr.
7. The magnetic field of the Sun varies slightly
In fact, the sun is fairly predictable: it should be a continuous eleven-year cycle, at certain moments that the Sun is at the peak of activity before activity decreases again, and then the sun changes its polarity.
According to NASA, all signs indicate that this event will happen very soon, maybe in the next few months - at the North Pole changes have already begun.
Of course, we should not expect a rain of fire in the sky - just increased solar activity.
8. We are surrounded by black holes
Black holes come in several forms. Firstly, there are black holes of stellar mass - the most common type, resulting in the destruction of a massive star. This occurs when the star has no hydrogen required for nuclear fusion, which results in combustion of helium. Because of this, the star becomes unstable, leading to one of two scenarios: compressed into a neutron star or a black hole collapse.
In the end, many of these black holes merge to form a supermassive black hole and our galaxy, like millions of others, orbiting around a central supermassive black hole.
Another type of black holes, called the Planck black holes, can bombard the Earth constantly. These tiny atom-like formation can be theoretically obtained with a collision in particle accelerator when proton beams are faced to near light speed.
No reason to worry. In most cases, the Planck black holes disintegrate immediately, without causing any damage. Such a black hole to absorb at least one atom of matter, must be significantly longer than our universe exists, not to mention the object of such a mass as the Earth.
9. Jupiter's magnetosphere could absorb the sun
Jupiter - the largest object in the solar system, except, of course, the sun: it is so huge that it could hold 1400 Earth-sized planets.
Jupiter's magnetosphere - the most powerful and the largest magnetosphere in the solar system, it is even stronger than that of the Sun, and could easily absorb the sun with its visible crown.
In order to make the picture a little bit clearer (because of the sun and Jupiter's size is still difficult to match), we note the following: if we could see Jupiter's magnetosphere from here, from the Earth, it would have seemed more than a full moon in our sky. In addition, in some regions of Jupiter's magnetosphere temperature is higher than on the Sun's surface.
10. The strange life forms might exist on the gas giants
Life may have originated in the most unlikely circumstances. In particular, it has recently been discovered bacteria thriving in deep geothermal holes on the ocean bottom, where the temperature is above the boiling point.
Despite this, for the origin of life, Jupiter seems doubtful place. In fact, it is a huge cloud of gas, is not it? Life, it would seem, there simply can not be conceived, not to mention the fact, to somehow develop.
Perhaps this view is mistaken. Experiments conducted in the early 1950s and known as the experiment Miller - Urey showed that we can create organic compounds, which are the first steps in the origin of life by lightning and the right chemicals.
The experiment Miller - Urey
Given this information and the fact that Jupiter meets certain requirements, such as the presence of water (Jupiter, possibly is the largest ocean liquid water in our solar system), methane, molecular hydrogen and ammonia, it is possible that gas giant can be cradle life. However, Jupiter's atmospheric pressure is higher than on any other planet in the solar system. Also on Jupiter strong winds, which hypothetically could contribute to the spread of the respective compounds. This suggests that for the emergence of life in such an environment will require considerable time, but many believe that some form of ammonia-based life can thrive in the clouds in the upper atmosphere, where the temperature and pressure contribute Support water in a liquid state.
One of the supporters of this idea Carl Sagan believes that in Jupiter's atmosphere may exist various forms of life, hunters, scavengers, "victims" - they can all play a role in a hypothetical food chain Jupiter.