Stalin Line - like our grandfathers fought
Historical and cultural complex "Stalin Line" - a unique tourist site not only for Belarus. In recent years, here comes more and more tourists and military history enthusiasts from near and far abroad. Visitors are shown the formidable fortifications, allow first hand experience what it is to shoot a "Kalashnikov" or MFR. But the main "chip", "Stalin Line" - the tanks.
Unlike most other museums, they are "live" - roaring engines, sneeze soot and knead the steel tracks of off-road dirt. Just seeing them in motion, feeling the earth trembles, when the multi-ton machine of creeps around, looking into the muzzle of a black hole, you see all the invincible power, which had to live alongside our grandfathers and great-grandfathers during the long four years of the Great Patriotic.
We talked to the creator of a unique museum, visited in the famous "Thirty", a ride on the T-44, we learn what makes each year come here Japanese tourists and why Schwarzenegger did not sell a unique tank BT-7.
At the end of the 1920s on the western border of the Soviet Union began the construction of the system of fortifications, with a light hand of journalists received informal name of Stalin's line. After 70 years, a group of enthusiasts from the charitable foundation "Memory of Afghan" with the support of the state, organized on the basis of a small fragment of the fortification historical and cultural complex, which has no analogues in the former USSR.
Despite the cloudy weather and the almost continuous rain, cars and buses with tourists on the "Stalin Line" drove up on a regular basis. Most of the cars in the parking lot - with a Russian license plate: the guests from the neighboring countries are trying to use to spend a two-week vacation. "All things you like: and the people, and the prices and service - says buys soldier's porridge at a local cafe Muscovite. - Ours is very much come to the majority of people are interested, enthusiastic. Those who do not need anything, just sit at home and drink. "
Drink often and coming. Another dealer told us a story about the Belarusian excursionists, arrived on a tourist bus. "Connoisseur of history" on the way to the "Stalin Line" drunk to unconsciousness, half asleep in his chair, and when the group was leaving, tearfully asked friends to bring him to the nearest tank and take a picture of his background. He said: "My wife does not believe that the tour went on, need evidence!"
Fortunately, such incidents are rare. People who came here, really interested in everything that they can show to the historical and cultural complex. Even school children - a headache all the guides - behave caponiers quieter water below the grass bags of concrete and literally look in your mouth lecturer. The atmosphere is.
Defensive structures, which is now part IKK "Stalin Line", were part of the so-called Miura - Minsk fortified. All in all the "old" (before 1939), the western border of the Soviet Union since the end of 1920 until the end of the 1930s, 21 fortified area was built - they have covered a great distance from Karelia to Odessa.
- The complex restored and serve as the main elements of the fortification of the exposure polukaponir artillery and two machine gun bunkers, - tells the employee of historical and cultural complex Sergey Zakharov. - Artillery, or as it is called, gun polukaponir №134, near where we are now, was built near the current highway Minsk - Molodechno in 1932. Its armament - two 76-millimeter guns. The garrison consisted of the construction of 20 people. Two such caponier crossfire could cover the 6-kilometer fortified line of defense.
- And they say that in itself Stalin Line no role in the defense of the country are not played, it is not clear at all what was built - "authority," said one of the tourists.
- This is a traditional misconception - upsets the "know-all" Sergey Zakharov. - Let's start with the fact that Stalin's line was not originally intended to completely stop the enemy advance. Its objective was to inflict maximum casualties, rear cover, to allow to mobilize our army and focus on the threatened area. All have 15 days.
On the other hand, the first fortified areas, we begin to build in 1927, a very difficult politically. At this point, we have considered the main enemies of Britain and France, that is, the Entente, once the intervention which we are constantly frightened. Considered a threat to these countries from bridgeheads in the Baltic States, but more likely the enemy we advocated Poland. 1927 - Military coup in Poland, came to power Pilsudski, leaves no hope to restore Rzeczpospolita within the borders of 1772. And just at that moment it begins to accelerate the construction of fortified areas.
Minsk fortified area, which is part of Stalin's line, was built in 1932-1933. While the creation of the fortified line of this magnitude hungry barefoot country was tremendous feat.
As for the fact that Stalin's line did not hold the Germans, because it is against them have never been built. It was built against Poland. For example, here this polukaponir had a maximum resistance against a projectile caliber of 203 mm or 152-mm cannon. In Poland until 1938 in service just did not have that caliber artillery, and therefore, these fortifications were virtually invulnerable to it.
Sergey Zakharov leads us through the rooms concrete bunker. Today it regained almost all. And virtually all the elements of fortification - "native".
- You must understand that in times when caponier perform combat missions, space here was much less - he says. - Almost everything here has been forced by the shelves, boxes of ammunition. The air pressure inside the hopper was higher than the outside - is allowed Garrison protect against chemical attack. Also pressure "pushes" out the powder gases, or in a few volleys a crew shells have suffocated.
It was assumed that, unless interrupted by the delivery of ammunition, caponier had to hold out for at least 15 days. In total isolation, he would have held out long - would quickly run out of ammunition. Rate guns - 10-12 rounds per minute, 300 rounds of ammunition from enough for a few hours.
The Japanese Red Army
Guests from neighboring countries to the "Stalin Line" really excited. They are attentive listeners, and the client's solvency. About the stand, where you can shoot from oholoschennogo weapons, another Russian tourist gathering of buys tickets totaling more than $ 50.
"Shoot shoot so, my son", - he said offspring and pats him on the head. Son readily picks up the PTR and the soul gives a volley of perceived opponents.
In the nearby kiosk selling souvenirs. Top seller - plaster busts of the leader of the peoples, whose name is a historical and cultural complex. By the way, officially in honor of Stalin, this line of fortifications never called. This "invention" of journalists and German propaganda even the end of the 1930s, which, however, is firmly fixed in the public mind. Now, on the "Line" is set peoples bust leader (one of the few open in the former Soviet Union after the collapse of the Union), his use of the logo and souvenir production.
Come on "Stalin Line" and the tourists from very very far abroad: Korea and Japan. On this day in the complex just happy plunged into the life of the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army, a group of Japanese. They were dressed in Soviet uniform, after which they began to develop the skills of combat training at a shooting range.
Under the harsh orders of uniformed commander instructor historical and cultural complex Japanese "Red Army" jump on the armor of the T-44 flies loose from it, covering the car, and spot razyat rifles Mosin imaginary opponent.
The head of delegation - the businessman from Tokyo Ivahaschi Kabuharu for several years engaged in the export of Russian and Belarusian goods - has long been interested in Soviet military history and trying to popularize it at home. He has already made several visits to the "Stalin Line", to the other end of the world, unable to find analogues of the complex Belarusian closer. This time brought a few of his friends to take part in the historical reconstruction of fights on Khalkhin- 1939.
As already mentioned, the tanks - the main "chip", "Stalin Line". The exhibition of historical and cultural complex they have dozens: from the "old men" of the Second World War to modern weapons. Most stands static, but we are interested in "living" machines that "Stalin Line" in recent years, is famous far beyond the country.
On the outskirts of the complex stands out mehdvor "Stalin Line", or as it is called here, the park.
We were approached by a strong grandfather, wiping cloth stained with fuel oil hands and seems to Mikhail Mikhailovich.
At 83, the old tanker Mikhail Onoshko with surprising ease jumps on board a high T-34. Famously pulled headset, dives into the commander's hatch, habitual movement triggers the starter. The machine, like a horse, feel the master's hand, comes to life. Mikhail remembers wartime: while still a teenager, he saw marinated powder and fuel oil military mechanics repaired his "wards". Probably from this time and was born a passion for combat vehicles. For more than half a century, he is nursed with tanks. Goes in them as well as teaching, consulting engineers, if they find it difficult to "diagnosis" and "treatment method". He says about tanks, like a strict father of small children, - dry, with pride.
"This is the best tank - he says the" Thirty ". - Easy-traveled, high-speed. The Germans were afraid of him briskly. Our soldiers, to bring more horror on Fritz, took leaky bucket and attached it to the end of the barrel, as a result of distant cannon seemed even larger caliber than it actually is. The Germans fled without looking back. But life tankman was generally short-lived. In each fight go like the last. Sideways machine twisted - and everything. "
wounded, stuck in marshes and drowned in rivers and lakes are tanks all over Belarus so far.
- That this car was in the river, in one of the districts of the Mogilev region, - says the Deputy Director of the Foundation "Memory of Afghan" Alexander Golubovic, pointing to standing under a canopy German Sturmgeschütz III. - Apparently, during the battle the explosion to be cleared from the bridge, and the Germans were not able to evacuate her and lay. After the war, local residents took off her engine, he worked as a mini-farm in the village, armament was removed by military experts, and pull the machine itself did not. We brought her here two years ago, we began to recover in the accuracy of the drawings - and now do not know analogues of this unique instance of the former Soviet Union.
Nearby is a BT-7, he found Shklovsky search party. Tank completely went over there, by the way, was a unique engine fighter. Now he is involved in all the parades, it's absolutely true copy of only the engine of the "stuffing" were replaced.
- But this machine took part in the fighting?
- Yes, this tank was still in the battles on Khalkhin- against the Japanese in 1939, then he was transferred here in Belarus, he participated in the largest tank battle of Senno, where he drowned.
- What is the price of such a tank now?
- I think we are talking about millions of dollars, ranging from five to six. They say, for example, that our BT-7 Schwarzenegger wanted to buy, because at the time in Austria, he served as a tanker. But who would sell him his? Even the Cuban women, the largest museum of Russian military equipment from its rich collection, this is not. BT-5 is, and 7th there.
We are doing a good job. Here, for example, a story. We've got a large collection of modern military and engineering equipment. And a couple of years ago I see: there are three man, and when one says: "Oo-oo-oo ... My own radar. Well I served on it. " And he reached it, the door trying to open it. But this modern technology, can be very few people interested, but he saw it, and it is nice. And the people who came with him, - it is also nice. Therefore, we want to collect as many copies of the equipment and keep it going. After military equipment - is also an element of the history and culture of the people.