Mysteries of the Red Planet
In the ancient Chinese astronomers called Mars "Firestar". Despite the fact that dozens of spacecraft have been sent to the planet to study, some things related to the Red Planet, is still puzzled scientists.
Learn about the greatest mysteries of Mars, which has yet to be unraveled.
Why is Mars two "persons"?
For several decades, scientists are wondering what could be the reasons for the presence of difference between the two sides of Mars. The northern hemisphere of the planet - a smooth and low - this is one of the most smooth and flat beds on the planets of the solar system. Potentially, it could be formed due to the water, which was once splashed on the Martian surface.
But the southern half of Mars - rough and all indented craters. It is about 4-8 km higher than the northern part. Not so long ago, research has been conducted, the results of which it has been suggested that such differences between the southern and northern sides of the planet could be linked to a giant cosmic body, which could once very long time to fall on the surface of Mars.
What is the source of methane on Mars?
The methane - is the simplest organic molecule. In 2003, the spacecraft "Mars Express" of the European Space Agency were first detected in the Martian atmosphere of methane molecules. On Earth, a large portion of the methane produced by living organisms, such as cattle, digesting food. It is assumed that the methane is stable in the Martian atmosphere is only 300 years old, but who or what might generate the gas so long ago - remains a mystery.
However, it is known methods for the formation of methane and without the participation of living organisms, such as volcanic activity. During the program, the European Space Agency "exomars", scheduled to begin in 2016, the study of the chemical composition of the Martian atmosphere will be carried out, the researchers were able to learn more about the Martian methane.
Is there liquid water on Mars
A large body of evidence indicates that Mars once had liquid water, if it exists today - remains a mystery. However, atmospheric pressure on Mars is very low, approximately 100 times less than the pressure in the world, hence unlikely to liquid water may remain on the surface of Mars. However, on the surface of the planet clearly visible dark long lines that hint at the fact that salt water streams can flow through them every spring.
Were there oceans on Mars?
Many Martian missions showed that Mars has a lot of evidence that once had water on the surface of the planet. More precisely, there were oceans, the network of valleys, river deltas and minerals that can form water.
But current models of early Martian climate can not find an explanation of how the planet could warm up so as to form liquid water as the sun warms the planet's surface is much weaker. There are other suggested that certain characteristics of the surface could not be formed with water, and winds or other mechanisms. Everything points to the fact that ancient Mars was still warm, and on its surface could be water, at least on one side. However, some scientists believe the opposite: ancient Mars was cold but humid, although this theory still disputed.
Is there life on Mars?
The first spacecraft, which successfully landed on the surface of Mars was NASA Viking 1. He first tried to find out whether there is life on Mars, but it did not work, moreover, is still the answer to this question is no. Most researchers of Mars around the world would have given much for a century to reveal this secret. Viking able to detect organic molecules, such as methyl chloride and dichloromethane. Later it turned out that it was the earth impurities, which were part of the cleaning liquid in the preparation device in the world. It was found that the Martian surface is very suitable for life, because there are appropriate conditions: a suitable temperature, radiation, excessive dryness and other factors. After all, life on Earth appeared even under more severe conditions, some of the examples are far north, dry soils of the Antarctic dry valleys and the very dry Atacama Desert in Chile.
Set is a pattern where there is liquid water on Earth - life is everywhere. For this reason, scientists believe, if there is water on Mars, there must necessarily be a life. Solve the mystery of whether there is life on Mars, scientists will be able to shed light on a number of other questions that remain unanswered today, for example, may or may not be life originated elsewhere in the universe.
Life on Earth came from Mars?
source of meteorites has been established, which have been found in Antarctica. They came to our planet from Mars, having broken in consequence of its collision with other space objects. These meteorites have structures similar to those created by terrestrial microbes. Disputes in this regard is not extinguished, and now, because a certain part of the researchers said that, most likely, these structures are produced chemically. Also, there is a belief that life on earth has been brought to Mars a long time ago, and it might move here just meteorites.
Can humans live on Mars?
In order to finally shed some light on whether or not there is life on Mars, people can fly there and find out.
As early as 1969, NASA planned for 1981 with the mission of sending a man to Mars. The aim of this expedition was planned, and there is a permanent organization of the Martian station by 1988. However, the plans were upset due to the fact that interplanetary travel involving human subjects were not such a simple task as the scientific and technical points of view. For example, the insurmountable difficulties were: providing a stock of food, water, oxygen, elimination of the harmful effects of microgravity and radiation, decreasing to zero the probability of fires, and so on. But the most important thing - you need to adjust psychologically person that he for years will be far away from the Earth and from the real help. It is also difficult to imagine, let alone organize: landing, work, life on an alien planet and returning from there back to Earth.
But in spite of that, the astronauts have long been dreaming of such flights. For example, volunteers have agreed to live for a year on a spaceship. It was the longest space flight simulation that was ever developed, the purpose of which was to play in the terrestrial conditions, which may be a mission to Mars from beginning to end.
Today, volunteers willing to go to Mars, a great many. Perhaps, once such a flight would be an outstanding reality.