10 things invented by women
If you make a list of the most famous inventions of the last few centuries, among the authors of these inventions will be very few women. And it's not that women can not invent or they do not have a creative bone, but they face numerous obstacles in getting "credit" for their ideas.
Take, for example, the case of Sybil Masters (Sybilla Masters), a woman who lived in the American colonies. After observing the work of Indian women, she invented a new way to turn corn into cornmeal. Sybil went to England in order to obtain a patent for his idea, however, if the current law forbids women to have their property, including intellectual. This property is usually owned by the father or the woman or her husband. In 1715, a patent for her invention yet been issued, the document was given the name of her husband.
Such property laws did not allow many women to acquire patents for their inventions. Women are also less likely to receive, and receive technical education, which would help them to generate brilliant ideas and turn them into a real product. Many women are faced with prejudice and ridicule when they sought help from the women in the implementation of their ideas.
Mary Keith (Mary Kies) was the first American woman who registered the patent in his name. In 1809, she developed a way to weave straw hats, it was an economic boon for New England. Given a document in his own name, Mary, thus, paved the way for other women - to inventors in order to have the right to patent their ideas. Below is a list of 10 things, the authors of which are women.
10. Circular Saw
In the late 18th century there was a Protestant religious sect known as the Shakers. The main values of this sect were communal life, gender equality and hard work. Tabitha Babbitt (Tabitha Babbitt) lived in sheykerskom community in Massachusetts and worked as a weaver, but in 1810 she came up with a way to ease the burden of working for his brother. She noticed that men sawing logs special saw with two handles, which need to pull it back and forth. Although the load on the two men were the same, sawn timber only when the saw is moving forward and in reverse motion with the log, nothing happened.
Babbitt thought it was a waste of energy, and has created a prototype of a circular saw, which later came to be used in the sawmill industry. She came up with a circular saw blade, so every move made sense. However, because of the community's commandments, Babbitt did not receive a patent for his invention.
9. Chocolate cookies
There is no doubt that many culinary masterpieces were born as a result of chance, but it is necessary to allocate among them one of the most enduring and delicious - chocolate chip cookies.
Ruth Wakefield (Ruth Wakefield) worked as a dietician and food lecturer before she and her husband purchased the old house-post at the outpost in the suburbs of Boston. Traditionally, these houses were a place where weary travelers paid tolls, snack and fed the horses. Ruth and her husband have turned this place into a hotel with restaurant. One day in 1930, Ruth was baking for the residents of the hotel pastry in which a prescription was necessary to add the melted chocolate, however, the woman was in a hurry, so she took a regular chocolate Nestle, broke it into small pieces and add to the dough, considering that during baking melted chocolate itself. Instead, the chocolate has acquired a special form, and thus was the birth of chocolate chip cookies.
Nestle company noticed that sales of its chocolate grown in Massachusetts. Company representatives met with Wakefield to talk about her cookies, which quickly gained a good reputation among tourists. At the suggestion of Ruth, they have added to your chocolate lines for easier fault, and then in 1939 began to sell factory-made biscuits, with recipe Ruth was printed on the reverse side of the package. In exchange, the woman received life providing free chocolate.
8. Liquid Paper
Bette Nesmith Graham (Bette Nesmith Graham) was not very good typist. However, the high drop-out college students, who touched her, brought the girl in Texas Bank secretariat, where she became the executive secretary of the Chairman of the Board. This was the beginning of the 1950s, electric typewriter had just been put into operation. But secretaries often had to retype the whole page of text because of one small mistake, as used at the time the carbon ribbon can not correct errors.
Once Graham watched as workers loaded festive figure on the bank windows. She noticed that they were wrong, they just applied another layer of paint on top to "close" error. Seeing this, she decided that she will be able to apply this idea in his work. Using your blender she mixed the paint, water-based dye that was used in her typewriter. The resulting mixture is taken to work with him, and she was able to seamlessly with a thin watercolor brush to correct any errors in the printed document it. Soon other secretaries began to demand this product, which is produced by Graham in your own kitchen. Graham was fired from her job for spending a lot of time on the distribution of the goods, which she described as "no error." However, being unemployed, she was able to improve its product, rename it to "liquid paper" and get a patent on it in 1958. While typewriters have been replaced by computers, many people still use white liquid - corrector.
7. Compiler and the COBOL programming language
Talking about the computer technologies, we tend to call such names as Charles Babbage (Charles Babbage), Alan Turing (Alan Turing) and Bill Gates. However, Admiral Grace Murray Hopper (Grace Murray Hopper) deserves credit for its role in the computer industry. Admiral Hopper began serving in 1943, while she was at Harvard University, where he worked on the creation of IBM Harvard Mark I computer, which was the first large-scale computer in the United States. She was the third person in the project, while Grace wrote a guide to operations, which was used by its followers. In 1950, Admiral invented the compiler, which transformed the British team in the machine code. This meant that now programmers could write code more easily and with fewer errors. Second compiler Hopper, Flow-Matic, used to program UNIVAC I and II, which supported the first commercially introduced in computers. Admiral Hopper also oversaw the development of a common business-oriented COBOL language, which was one of the first computer language program. Admiral Hopper received numerous awards for its work, in addition, an American warship was named in her honor.
6. Colored flares
When the March Coston (Martha Coston) was widowed in 1847, she was only 21 years old. In the hands of her four children, and she had not the slightest idea of how to live and what to feed them. One evening she was leafing through a notebook of their deceased husband, and found there a plan to create a flare system that could use the vehicles to communicate with each other during the night. Coston requested the relevant authorities on how to check the system to work, however, did not succeed, but Coston was undeterred.
The next 10 years she spent what is involved in the improvement of the system and design crafted by her husband devices. She consulted with scientists and officers, but still could not figure out how to make sure that the flash was bright and durable, with were easy to use. One night she brought her children to the street to look at those fireworks, then that her head and came the idea to apply some pyrotechnic technology in its flare system.
Flare system finally worked, and the US Navy bought the rights to it. Colored Coston flares were widely used during the Civil War. But, unfortunately, the flare system was not the best way for women to feed their children. According to military documents, Koston made for the Navy during the Civil War around 1200000 missiles that it has provided them at cost. She had to pay $ 120,000, of which it has received only 15,000, and, as she wrote in her autobiography, the navy refused to pay her the entire amount due to the fact that she was a woman.
5. A paper bag
Margaret Knight (Margaret Knight) is not invented the paper bag, but those first paper bags were not so useful for carrying things. They were more like envelopes, so there was no possibility of their use for the products, that is, as we know them now, they have no right. For this we should thank the Knight. She realized that such a package should be a large area of the bottom, then the weight would be distributed evenly, and such a package would hold more stuff.
In 1870 she created the wooden machines that cut and glued paper bags square base. While Knight worked on the creation of the Iron prototype device, then to patent his invention, it is found that it stole the idea of a man named Charles Annan (Charles Annan), which saw its wooden invention a few months earlier. She filed suit against Annan, who argued that it is impossible that a woman was able to invent such a complex in the car. Knight picked up all his sketches, drawings and notes, in the end, she managed to prove otherwise, and to obtain a patent on the device in 1871.
However, it was the first patent that got her so hard, but it is not the first patent in her life. At the age of 12 years, it has developed a machine automatically stops the industrial device, if something went wrong, which made it possible to prevent a large number of injuries. Knight has received more than 20 patents.
It is possible to assume that the dishwasher invented a person who has spent years standing over the sink and washing away the mountain of dishes, lamenting the wasted time, wasted. In fact, Josephine Cochrane (Josephine Cochrane), which has received a patent for the first working dishwasher, do not spend so much time washing dishes. The real impetus for its invention was the fact that one day, after a nice dinner, its workers during the harvest in the kitchen broke the amazing Chinese porcelain set that was very dear to her. Cochrane was a special secular, who loved a good time, however, after the death of her husband in 1883, she was left with a huge amount of debt. Rather than sell its numerous relics, she focused on the creation of a machine that would wash them well, without harming them. Her car, based on the work which has been directed to the dishes under intense pressure jet of water, allowed her to get a patent on the device in 1886. The woman claimed that invent the car was much easier than to promote it to the masses. At first, her invention failed among individual consumers, as many families did not have hot water heating systems, which are necessary for the operation of the machine, and those who were not willing to pay for what women do for free.
Undaunted by this failure, and she began to look for meetings with the directors of the major hotels and restaurants, telling them that the dishwasher can do the work for which they are paid tens of workers. Over time, however, more and more families began to get its device currently in private ownership.
3. Wiper blades
At the dawn of the 20th century, Mary Anderson (Mary Anderson) first visit to New York. She saw that New York, which is very different from what tourists see today. At that time there was no endless traffic jams and an incredible amount of cars that endlessly and senselessly signals to each other in a vain attempt to drive faster. In those days, cars have not yet captured the American imagination and were rather rare. However, a woman from Alabama, then having gone to New York, invented what has become the standard for each vehicle. During his visit, Anderson went on a tram through the snow-covered city.
She drew attention to the fact that the driver had to stop every few minutes to clean the windshield from snow. At that time all the drivers used to do, so when there was rain or snow, it was a real attack, which had to be dealt with. After returning home, Anderson has developed a special holder on the spindle, which has been using the handle attached to the outside of the windshield. When the driver was necessary to clean the glass, he just pulled the handle and device removes dirt from the windscreen. Anderson received a patent for his device in 1903, but only 10 years later, thousands of Americans began to go on with her invention of the automobile.
Romance at a distance often questioned, however, Rachel Fuller Brown (Rachel Fuller Brown) and Elizabeth Lee Hazen (Elizabeth Lee Hazen) were able to prove that the professional relationship at a distance can lead to productive results. Both women worked in the New York State Department of Health in 1940, but Hazen was in New York, and Brown was in Albany. Despite the miles separating them, they cooperated in the process of creating the first successful drug fighting with fungus.
In New York, Hazen felt the soil samples in order to check whether the interfaces of any of the organisms with mushrooms. If she could find some activity in the soil, it had to send the sample to the colleague, whose task was to extract from the soil organism that has caused the reaction. As soon as Brown would have found the active ingredient, it had to send the sample back to Hazen, so she checked it again for the presence of fungi. If the body is able to kill the fungus, it should be assessed for toxicity. Most of the samples were too toxic to humans, but finally, Brown and Hazen stumbled upon an effective body that kills fungi and safe for humans. This happened in 1950.
They named their drug Nystatin. Currently, the drug is sold under various trade names, and he treats fungal infections that affect the skin, genitals and intestines.
It was supposed to be just a temporary job. Stephanie Kwolek (Stephanie Kwolek) began working at DuPont Company in 1946 in order to accumulate enough money to study in medical school. it still was in 1964 at the same place of work, exploring how to turn polymers particularly strong synthetic fibers. Kwolek worked with polymers whose molecules are rod-shaped and lined up in a straight line. Compared with molecules that form a mixed system, Kwolek believed that clear line, which line up molecules will enjoy its material stronger. And it's all true despite the fact that these polymers are very difficult to dissolve in the liquid, which can then be tested. Later, she was finally able to create a solution with a rod-shaped molecules, but produced its solution was significantly different from all other previously received Stephanie.
The next step it should have been passing the liquid through a special machine that produces a fiber cloth. However, the die machine operator is not allowed to use the device Kwolek because she received a mixture of radically different from what was used previously on it, and he feared that the machine can break.
Yet Kwolek insisted and after Kwolek process received dense as steel fiber. This material called Kevlar, and is currently used for the production of skis, radial tires, brake pads, cables for suspension bridges, hats and so on.. In particular, Kevlar is used to make bulletproof vests, so despite the fact that Kwolek and did not go to study in medical school, it, nevertheless, managed to save many lives.