Methods and types of water purification | Miscellaneous
It is difficult to imagine life without the regular use of clean drinking water. It plays a vital role in the proper metabolism, normal functioning of the human organism as a whole.
Presently it is difficult to overestimate the importance of high-quality treatment of drinking water, especially in large metropolitan areas. Its quality is determined by the regulations, such as health and hygiene standards, national and international standards.
On the level of pollution is influenced by many factors, such as biological and chemical composition of the soil, weather and environmental conditions. Each of pollutants requires a separate approach, so four kinds of purification according to the principle of action can be identified:
1) A physical method. The method includes settling, clarification, filtration and treatment with ultraviolet light. Settling - fouling of harmful substances by making use of the force of gravity. Filtering - most rude cleaning method to a preliminary step to get rid of the largest particle pollutants. For this purpose screens and grills. Filtration - cleaning is performed by using as water filters of different materials. It can be produced this way, as a primary coarse and finer processes. In addition, filtering in addition to industrial use is widespread and for domestic use. Ultraviolet radiation is suitable for the destruction of harmful microorganisms by destroying their structure. It is preferably used in the water treatment process. 2) chemical method. The method includes processes such as neutralization, oxidation and reduction. These methods are based on the use of chemicals such as sodium hydroxide, ammonia water, and others. Thus, it regulates the acid-base balance, removes toxins carried out chlorination and disinfection.
3) physical and chemical methods. This method includes a plurality of cleaning areas, as the name implies connecting the first and second methods. These include flotation, adsorption, ion exchange, and others. Such purification methods have a wide range of effects, from coarse primary purification and water until late stage.
4) Biological method. This method of water purification based on the use of the properties of living organisms, which are called Cluster activated sludge. This method is very effective, as it allows you to configure the system to literally cleansed of specific pollutants.
How to organize such a large network of water purification?
First, crude waste water typically enters the averager, wherein the leveling dirt concentrations by diluting with pure water. This allows for a more reliable preparation for the main purification stages.
Then the water enters the sedimentation tanks, where the primary treatment of the largest and gross pollutants. For this purpose, sand traps, septic tanks, grease trap and so on. After water is supplied to the main cleaning, where the above methods are applied. Precipitation pollution that remain after all the cleaning steps are used, depending on their density, chemical composition. As a result, pure water is chlorinated, passes ozonation and UV treatment. In the world there are so many kinds of purification of drinking water. Some suitable only for industrial use, while others are used by people for their own household needs, such as filter jugs, deep cleaning of the filters. Together, this forms a huge system that can provide any localities drinking water of excellent quality.