Strange formations within the earth scientists found
Around 2,000 kilometers under our feet, two strange education baffled scientists and turned the traditional idea of the internal structure of our planet.
Two education size of a continent and a height greater than Mount Everest is not the first year, do not give rest to scientists. They were discovered back in the 1970, after the disposal of science there was a method of seismic tomography, which allows scientists to study the interior of the planet. Two education experts who humorously referred to as "bubbles", located beneath the Earth's mantle, just above the outer core. Stone structures, the scientists suspect, have a very high temperature, and that they may have lies the key past of our planet, and even the emergence of life on it. After all, as geologists say, life on Earth came, in part due to tectonic plate movement. A suspected geologists, that the two giant "bubble" may cause tectonic shifts of the plates, as well as a number of other processes, including volcanic activity.
One of the strange formations under Pacific, and the other - under Africa and the Atlantic. As the researchers say, they look like a giant mountain ranges, delimiting the mantle and the Earth's core is about halfway to its center. "In these places there is something strange, - says professor of geology Ed Garnero of Arizona State University. - For reasons unknown, seismic waves, passing through these structures, slowed ". However, it is the only thing scientists know authentically: "bubbles" still remain a mystery to them almost everywhere.
At present, the main question scientists to "bubbles" is considered the question of their density. What they are made - from the dense and heavy, hitherto unknown breed, or porous lava stone as the layers above the earth? Unfortunately, researchers still can not find this for quite objective reasons: today ways to learn the deeper layers of the planet scientists more difficult than to get to know Venus or Mars. "We are aware of what is happening under our feet, less than what is happening on the Sun" - complains Paul Kolmeyer researcher at University College London. In the meantime, the question of the density of the "bubble" did not receive a response, scientists can not test many of their assumptions - for example, the assumption that these strange formations are responsible for the emergence of active volcanoes, forming a chain of islands, such as Hawaii, and in the past, millions of years ago, we have been responsible for several superizverzheny almost sterevshih all life from the earth.
Many people know about the ocean tides, but few know that the same cosmic forces that affect the oceans, impact on the earth's crust. Like the ocean, it will also rise and fall twice a day, and its fluctuations in some places reached 40 centimeters. According to the observations of scientists over the country, "bubbles" are fluctuations is not as in other places of the planet. Here they are much stronger. This discovery enabled the scientists to identify new possible direction for the study of "bubbles". "The ebb and flow in the structure of the solid Earth are very sensitive to the density of matter," - said Harriet Lau, a researcher at Harvard University. Starting from this particular, scientists began to study the density of the "bubbles", measuring the power fluctuations, including after the earthquake. The results have allowed, in particular, Kolmeyer Field and her team suggest that "bubbles" may significantly are less dense than the surrounding matter. However, while these studies are at the very beginning, and as acknowledged by the scientists, they now can not draw any conclusions with certainty.
A few months ago, a graduate student Maria Tsehmistrenko of Oxford University presented the map of the "bubble" under Africa, entirely composed using seismic tomography. Tracking the draft structure of the "bubble" with the seismic sensors installed on the ocean floor in the area of Madagascar, lasted several months. As a result, the image obtained Tsehmistrenko and her team was composed 3D-map of the "bubble". Thereon it looks like a tree, broad rooted in the depths of the earth, and numerous branches are drawn to the surface, reaching to it exactly at the points where the active volcanoes. "At first we did not believe in what they saw!" - says Tsehmistrenko. However, despite the importance of the work out of it, again, it is impossible to make definitive conclusions about the the extent to which "bubbles" stimulate volcanic activity on the planet. However, scientists are convinced that there can not do without their influence.
However, scientists are determined to solve the riddle of "bubbles". "They - one of the largest structures in the Earth, and we still do not know what they are and whence came, - says geologist Vedas Lekis University of Maryland. - Their mystery lies their main appeal. " Scientists believe that the study of "bubbles" and their impact on terrestrial volcanoes will be long and difficult, but at least they are confident in their future victory over the unknown and the next opening of the secrets of the mysterious "bubbles".