Three projects geoengineering, which can repair or break the Earth

From the cultivation of forest area with the continent to call rain, scientists have begun to offer, experience, and even to introduce large-scale geo-engineering projects to transform the planet drastically. These projects are designed to address issues such as the expansion of deserts, drought or excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere - and all for the sake of the fight against climate change. After all, if not us, then who? Nature take its course, and destroy us.

Three projects geoengineering, which can repair or break the Earth

The dangerous geoengineering?

The impact of uncontrolled climate change costs the country hundreds of billions of dollars a year, since the frequency of extreme weather events is increasing, and the yield is reduced, not counting other consequences. All this leads to the need to introduce radical solutions. However, geo-engineering, in particular, faced with considerable resistance.

Opponents argue that not enough people understand the complexity of the global natural cycles, and attempt to change them will cause more problems than it solves.

Large green wall

One of the projects that have already been implemented in some, was the creation of a green wall on large areas of the planet. They consist of native vegetation and planted on the edge of the desert to stop the desertification of surrounding areas. The fact that the land on the edge of the desert is already subject to drought and congested communities living there, creating a vicious circle and makes the residents to fight for survival. Green walls and supportive environment designed to rejuvenate the land, making large areas of the planet more livable.

The two biggest wall - a program "Shelter in the three northern forests" in China, the length of which is 4500 km, aimed at halting the spread of the Gobi Desert and the Great Green Wall of Africa stretching 8,000 km for the reduction of the Sahara. The success of these walls depends on the track long-term changes in vegetation, and to this end, scientists will rely on decades of satellite images and algorithms supplemented with visual interpretation of image analysis. Collect Earth, a joint project of Google and Agriculture Department, has created an open-source interface, which allows researchers to have access to all this data.

Sun protection

Last year, Harvard researchers conducted a test, which included the sending of trace amounts of spray - not enough to have any significant effect - in the Earth's stratosphere at a height of about 20 km. Aerosols contain the sulfate compound which may reflect the incoming sunlight and reduce global temperature.

In an article published in 2017 in the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, states that the injection of aerosols into the atmosphere, essentially simulates ash plume from the eruption. And as the ash plume is being injected into the atmosphere, aerosol spreads rapidly and affects large areas of the planet.

Three projects geoengineering, which can repair or break the Earth

The blue sky can permanently discolor if interfere in it.

Scientists have also studied the possibility of launching into space a giant umbrella for controlling the amount of solar radiation reaching the earth. This idea has been floating for decades, but only recently got a boost to development.

For example, in 2018 from the Journal of Aerospace Technology and Management described the launch of the so-called the HSS, or a huge space shield. The plan is to place a thin, wide sheet of carbon fiber in the Lagrange point, which is a relatively stable point in the complex system of gravitational attraction of the Earth, moon and sun. This sheet will only block a small portion of the solar radiation, but this may be enough to reduce global temperatures lower limit of 1, 5 degrees Celsius, defined by the International Panel on Climate Change. Others want to block the sun, stimulating the formation of clouds - a process known as seeding clouds. To rain fell, the moisture in the air to be condensed, and therefore, an interesting concept of nucleation (nucleation) is required for the drop in temperature and condensation. In nature, water droplets are formed around the dust particles, pollen, sea salt or bacteria, but researchers have confirmed that the compounds such as silver iodide or dry ice, may also work. The plan is to introduce these substances into the atmosphere over the drought-prone areas, thereby increasing cloudiness and precipitation.

Removal CO 2 atmospheric

Direct Air Capture (DAC) is a cocktail of chemicals that bind to the CO 2, but inert with respect to other gases. When air passes through the machine DAC, also known as artificial trees, CO 2 adhere to chemicals and released again with increasing energy, which allows it to capture, store, and recycle or reuse. The Swiss company has built Climeworks only commercial plant designed to capture and re-sale of carbon dioxide. Its purpose - to capture one percent of the world's carbon dioxide emissions by 2025.

Removal of CO 2 from the atmosphere can be carried out also by inoculating oceans, which are one of the major sinks of carbon in the world, responsible for about 30% removal of carbon dioxide. The top two ways to do this include iron and lime. Iron fertilizer is intended to stimulate the growth of phytoplankton, which sucks the carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and help to postpone it to the seabed. The Korean article published in 2018, the authors reviewed by iron seeding experiments over the past 25 years, and came to the conclusion that this could be a viable solution. However, they recognize that need much more testing. The addition of lime will cause a reaction with carbon dioxide has dissolved in the ocean, and turn it into bicarbonate ions, thereby reducing the acidity of the oceans and making them susceptible to absorb more carbon dioxide.

The medicine worse than the disease?

While these ideas appear promising, there are a number of potentially harmful effects. In 2008, 191 countries adopted the United Nations ban on the fertilization of the oceans due to fears of the unknown side effects, such as changes in the food chain or the creation of regions with a low concentration of oxygen. Legislative Assembly of the State of Rhode Island enacted the 2017 Act geoengineering year, stating that "geo-engineering includes many technologies and methods relating to hazardous activities that may cause harm to human health and safety, the environment and the economy of the State of Rhode Island. "

Despite the resistance, some companies are lobbying governments to geoengineering are allowed to work, and scientists continue to develop and experiment with new ideas. Some of the perceived benefits of such plans are being questioned. In a recently published article in the journal Nature argues that reducing the amount of solar radiation reaching the earth's surface, there is little help to stop the harmful effects of climate change on crops. The only question is whether we know enough to deal with geoengineering? What if, for example, large-scale seeding clouds to change the flow and delay the monsoon season in Southeast Asia? What it will threaten rice crops? Or that, if dumping tons eeza the ocean will destroy fish populations along the coast of Chile?

Nobody knows for sure what the consequences will have the geo-engineering projects - but it is also possible that they will be the decisions that we were looking for.

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