Scientists have grown in the laboratory of an ideal human blood vessels
An international team of scientists led by University of British Columbia experts (Canada) grown in a petri dish perfect three-dimensional replica of human blood vessels, perfectly mimics the structure and function of these. Researchers believe that the results achieved, the details of which are described in the journal Nature, opens up the possibility of more effective approaches to the development of the treatment of various serious diseases, such as diabetes.
People with diabetes - a chronic condition of high blood sugar - often seen problems with blood circulation in the body. As a result, it may become a cause of heart attacks, strokes and other diseases associated with the cardiovascular system as well as lead to amputation. For the study of diabetic conditions, scientists use animals, for example, the same laboratory mice. However, the use of the mouse vascular system does not allow to fully explore and evaluate all aspects of the disease, in particular, it is how the loss of the human vascular system. This complicates the development of diabetic complications.
Ideally, scientists, of course, always wanted to be able to observe the effects of the disease in the blood vessels, the most similar to human. Therefore, as an alternative to research on animals has been actively developing the sphere of production of tiny organs or organelles. So, in other groups of scientists organelles stomach had already been established, the lungs and even the brain. With their help, we conducted research aimed at understanding the development and treatment of many diseases, from cystic fibrosis and ending Zika virus. The scientific team behind the latest research, said scientists for a long time failed to create a truly perfect human vascular organelles. However, in a press release the University of British Columbia says that it is now managed.
"Our organelles are very similar to human capillaries even at the molecular level, so now we can use them to study diseases of the blood vessels directly on human tissues," - says lead study author Reiner Wimmer.
Comparison of changes of the blood vessels: in man and laboratory created vascular organelles. The basement membrane (indicated by green) around blood vessels (red) is significantly increased in diabetic patients (indicated by white arrows)
The authors note that the organelles vascular system have been grown on the basis of stem cells - immature cells that can take the form of any other. As in the case of this vascular system by organelles it has a network of capillaries coated with basement membrane, which is a layer separating the connective tissue from the epithelium or endothelium and fulfilling a structural function, giving shape and supporting blood vessels.
Wimmer with a command received organelles transplanted mice alive with no immune system (it is necessary to prevent rejection of the new tissue). Organelles easily took root in their bodies, joining up with this circulatory system, and then developed further in a larger network of arteries, arterioles (small arteries) and small veins. The scientists decided to go a step further and even managed to recreate the "diabetic" blood vessels, characterized by thickening of the basement membrane. Now you can use them as a model to identify new treatments.
Experimental results show that by vascular organelles are more suitable model for studying diabetes, the researchers added. And as the circulatory system is connected to all parts of the body, the potential application of these organelles goes far beyond a single research of this disease.
"Every organ in our body is related to the circulatory system. Ability to grow in the form of blood vessels from stem cells organelles - turning point. With their help, we can find out the reasons and methods for treating large number of diseases, ranging from diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, all cardiovascular disease to cancer, "- said the study's senior author Dzhozer Penninger.
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