Blood cells turned into neurons. This will help in the treatment of nervous system diseases
Back in the early 21 th century mass obtain stem cells for research has been extremely problematic. Not to mention the development of new therapies. Everything changed in the middle of zero when the method "reprogram" cells has been developed. In other words, one kind of cells obtained other. More recently, a group of German researchers has successfully created from the blood cells of the nerve cells. And they can be used to treat a variety of diseases of the nervous system and even be used in transplantation.
As the edition of Cell Stem Cell, the scientists were able to make from the blood cells, so called induced pluripotent stem cell (or iPS-cells). These are the cells that have properties of embryonic stem cells (i.e., can differentiate into cells of different tissues), but they are derived from somatic cells. Simply put, from the cells of virtually any tissue. This in itself is not new, and iPS-cells created before. The main difference, as stated lead author Andreas Trumpp, lies elsewhere.
"was created before the stem cells and the cells of the nervous tissue is not suitable for medical use. It was a kind of "mixture", which simply can not function as well as the cells of the body. "
For their work the researchers first used a well-known way to turn blood cells into embryonic stem cells and then using the genetic factors (i) NBSCs and SCN9A, forced them to differentiate into neural tissue cells.
Scheme reprogramming and cell differentiation process
I want to add that such a "trick" can be turned and the connective tissue cells. Thus, the new technique could find wide application in regenerative medicine. On the one hand it will be possible to restore the damaged neurons and neural connections in the brain of the central nervous system. On the other - to grow parts of the peripheral nervous system, for example, the return of the lost sensory or motor activity. In this case, the new tissue will not be rejected, since the fence is needed cells taken from the patient.
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