Astronomers have discovered the youngest pulsar Milky Way
Using data from cosmic X-ray Observatory "Chandra" space agency NASA team of American astronomers has confirmed the presence of a young pulsar in our galaxy. The finding may provide researchers with new information about the evolution of stars. Conclusions of scientists published in the journal Astrophysical Journal, the official website of the project "Chandra".
After massive stars have ends hydrogen to sustain a fusion reaction, collapse occurs, resulting in an explosion supernova. As a result of this explosion may appear a neutron star, which is the remnant core of the exploded star. Despite its tiny size, these neutron stars have incredible density, and yet they very quickly rotate and emit bright beams of energy that makes them look like beacons. Scientists on Earth determine how these emissions pulses - hence the name "pulsar".
First pulsars were discovered in the 60s of the last century. Since then, astronomers have identified the presence of at least 2,000 similar facilities. Nevertheless, many mysteries associated with pulsars, still remain unsolved. For example, we have not yet sorted out the whole range of diversity of the behavior of these strange objects, and little is known about the true nature of the stars that produce them.
New data from the X-ray telescope "Chandra" may clarify some of these issues. A team of astronomers has found evidence that within the nebula, which appeared after the explosion of the supernova Kes 75, located about 19 000 light-years from Earth, is the youngest known pulsar is the Milky Way. Very high rotational speed, as well as a very strong magnetic field of an object to form a shock wave, wind vysokoenergiticheskih of antimatter particles which are carried away at a speed close to the speed of light. Powerful pulsar wind creates around 75 Kes huge magnetized bubble of highly charged particles - pulsar wind nebula (you can see in the image below).
In this composite image Kes 75 highly charged particles observed, "Chandra" marked in blue, they surround the immediate area around the pulsar. Nizkozaryazhennye particles marked in purple. They are spread over a much greater distance from the object.
Get the final image allowed the analysis of the data collected "Chandra" in 2000, 2006, 2009 and 2016, respectively. These data contain information on how to change the state and appearance of the pulsar wind nebula. If you believe the calculations, the pulsar nebula is expanding at an incredible rate of about 1 million meters per second.
Scientists theorize that such an incredible rate may be explained by the fact that the nebula expands inside the relatively less dense environment. More specifically, astronomers believe that it expands inside the gas bubble formed by the decay of a gas discharged iron appeared at supernova radioactive nickel, which in turn has increased the brightness and supernova. If this is true, then astronomers have a new understanding of the heart of a star explosion, as well as what elements as a result of this explosion can be formed. The rate of expansion of the nebula also says that the explosion itself Kes 75 could be observed from Earth for about five hundred years ago. Recall that the object is located 19 000 light-years away, so about any observation speech is not in real time. However, in addition to data on the supernova explosions of Tycho Brahe (SN 1572) and Kepler's supernova (SN 1604) no mention of Kes 75 is not found in the historical records.
Why Kes 75 was not visible from Earth? Observations of the cosmic X-ray telescope "Chandra", and earlier observations by other telescopes indicate that the light of a supernova explosion could be covered by the Earth's densest clusters of interstellar gas and dust located in the field of observation. For scientific instruments at the time of supernova light was too dim so that they can distinguish it.
Astronomers have also noted that the brightness of the pulsar wind nebula in the observation period has decreased by 10 percent from 2000 to 2016-th years and now mainly concentrated in the northern region. Such rapid changes observed in the pulsar wind nebula Kes 75, as well as its unusual structure point to the need to develop more accurate models of the evolution of the pulsar nebulae, the researchers said.
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