Astronomers have discovered the largest and heaviest object of the early universe
Scientists from the National Institute for Astrophysics in Bologna, Italy, announce the opening of the largest and heaviest object times of the early universe - a vast supercluster of galaxies, located 11 billion light-years away, and appeared after only 2, 3 billion years after the Big Bang. On the discovery of astronomers reported in the journal article Astronomy & Astrophysics.
His discovery of Italian scientists have made in the course of observation of about ten thousand ancient galaxies, comparable in size to the Milky Way and existed during the first two billion years after the Big Bang. During his studies, astronomers hope to understand in what conditions could occur and how the evolution of these objects.
Observations have shown that a fairly large portion of these galaxies (about 1 thousand) was concentrated in a relatively compact area Sextant constellation. Calculate the distance between them, as well as analyzing the manner of their movements, the researchers realized that the observed objects are part of a giant cluster. Scientists have named it "Hyperion" - in honor of one of the twelve Titans of Greek mythology, born of Uranus and Gaia.
Subsequent monitoring of the subject was told that the total mass of the supercluster found to be at least 270 trillion solar masses, making it comparable in size to the largest giant clusters of galaxies located "next door" to the Earth.
"We first discovered such a large cluster, located at such a great distance from us. All known objects of the type previously opened, are located in a more "modern" part of the universe where they had enough time to set weight and evolution. Opening of "Hyperion" was a big surprise for us, "- says Olga Kuchchati astronomer from the National Institute for Astrophysics in Bologna Italy.
According to modern concepts, the first galaxies emerged as a direct result of the gravitational collision of giant gas clouds, which in turn arose from the uneven distribution of matter due to gravitational "echo" in the process of superfast expansion space after the Big Bang.
Some clouds form a single galaxy of other, larger, initiated the formation of hundreds of galaxy groups, which are then joined together in clusters and superclusters.
The fact that the first galaxies, which appeared in the first billion years after the Big Bang must have been different from the later small size and mass, astronomers theorists spoke at the end of the last century. Recently, however, says Kuchchati, these assumptions began to question. Grain of doubt laid the observation with the help of modern ground and space telescopes, with which scientists began to discover more and more ancient and large galaxy that appeared almost at the same time when the first stars lit up, and the universe became completely transparent and accessible to observation. According to the researchers discovered supercluster "Hyperion" from more modern superclusters, distinguished by some special features. For example, in spite of similar weight and size, "Hyperion" is not similar in appearance to modern clusters. The latter have a "branched" and heterogeneous structure, which totally does not occur in "Hyperion".
Explain what is the reason, scientists can not yet, but plan to find out in the near future with the help of ground-based and orbiting telescopes.
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