ISS will create the coldest place in the universe
With the help of the carrier rocket "Antares" company Orbital ATK NASA space agency sent to the International Space Station equipment to conduct experiments on the extreme cooling of matter. Draft Cold Atom Laboratory ( "Laboratory Cold atom", CAL) is designed to reach a temperature which is at 10 billion times lower than the temperature of the vacuum. This is necessary to obtain a condensate Bose - Einstein - group of a large number of atoms that exhibit quantum properties at a macroscopic level.
The experiment consists of several tools, such as a box, lasers, vacuum chamber and the electromagnetic "knife." All this is designed to work with the atoms - namely, to cool them to a temperature as close to absolute zero than ever. If successful, the experiment will help as much as possible to slow down their speed at the longest for the time period.
At the absolute zero is equal to -273, 15 degrees Celsius (0 degrees Kelvin), the substance completely stopped atoms move, which, however, is unattainable in practice because of the zero-point - quantum fluctuations that manifest themselves when the minimum energy state of the system. Such an effect is observed when establishing the Bose condensation - Einstein consisting of bosons - particles that can occupy the same quantum state, i.e. to become indistinguishable from the viewpoint of the experimenter. Because all particles are able to attain a minimum level of power, the entire condensate ceases to interact with atoms of the surrounding material, whereby, for example, the friction force disappears and there is superfluid. Microgravity on the ISS will allow the observation of Bose - Einstein condensates for a record long period of time - 10 seconds.
"The study of these atoms giperholodnyh could revolutionize our understanding of the fundamental nature of matter and gravity. The experiments, which we conducted with CAL, will help us to better understand the gravity and dark energy - one of the most common forces in the Universe ", - said Robert Thompson, a project scientist at the Laboratory CAL NASA's Jet Propulsion.
The quantum effects that are manifested in the condensate Bose - Einstein, including superfluid can be used for efficient energy transfer and superconductivity devices and quantum computers and high-precision atomic clocks with a laser cooling.
Cold Atom Laboratory launched aboard a private cargo spacecraft Cygnus in the Monday, May 21. In addition, the ISS sent equipment for sequencing the genomes of microbes found on board the ISS, as well as manual sextant to determine the position of the stars station.