Physics, could confuse the quantum cloud of atoms. This is generally what?
The quantum world of atoms and particles of bizarre and amazing. At the quantum level particles can penetrate through impermeable barriers and be in two places at once. However, the strange properties of quantum mechanics - it is not mathematical quirks, these are real effects that can be observed in the lab again and again. One of the most characteristic features of quantum mechanics - is "confusion." Entangled particles remain enigmatic linked at any distance. And here are three independent European group of scientists managed to confuse not just a pair of particles, as it did before, but individual clouds of thousands of atoms. They also found a way to tap the technological potential of its achievements.
When the particles are entangled, they exchange properties, which seemed to make them dependent on each other, even if they are separated by billions of kilometers. Einstein called entanglement "spooky action at a distance", since a change in one particle instantly affects the pair tangled on her a couple - no matter how far.
How can I use quantum entanglement?
Although confusion can seem somehow magical, experiments have shown that it exists for many years. And it can also be extremely useful - related particles so can be used to transfer the quantum state of a particle, such as a spin, from one place to another instantly (teleportation). They can also help in storing vast amounts of information to a certain extent (superdense coding). In addition to the ability to store information, confusion can also help in the binding and processing power combining systems in different parts of the globe. It is not difficult to understand that this makes it an important aspect of quantum computing. Another promising direction is truly secure communication. This is because any attempt to intervene in the system with entangled particles instantly disrupt the confusion by making the obvious fact of breaking the link.
Entangled photons can be used to improve the resolution of imaging techniques. Scientists from the University of Waterloo now hope to develop a quantum radar that can detect stealth aircraft type.
The vortices in Bose - Einstein condensates
However, it is not so and just deploy technology based on entanglement. Because confusion - a very fragile thing. Experiments with involvement usually produce individual pairs of particles. However, it is difficult to single particles with an accuracy to detect, and often they are lost or hidden in the surrounding noise. Therefore, the task to bring them into a state of confusion, to manipulate them to perform useful operations and, finally, just to use - everything is unbearably hard to crank out in practice.
The new study, published in three papers in Science, led to a significant breakthrough. Instead of taking the individual particles and to confuse them into one, the scientists started with super-cold gas - assembly of thousands of atoms. They are cooled to near absolute zero. Sharpened in a small volume, the atoms in a cloud are indistinguishable from each other and form a new state of matter known as Bose - Einstein condensate. The atoms in the cloud are starting to work together - now they are confused. For the first time such a state of matter was discovered in 1995, for which the Nobel Prize in Physics was obtained in 2001. Although long known that this method confuses thousands of atoms at the same time, no one has yet demonstrated a method that will allow it to carry out. Still.
The scientists who conducted the new study showed that these clouds can be separated into groups and between the atoms will remain quantum communication. How did they do? Releasing atoms from the limited space and using a laser to break them and measure the properties of individual pieces of large clouds.
Scientists theorize that the methods can be extended so designed that each atom in the cloud to be used independently. And if this can be done, for quantum computing it will be just fabulous. In digital computing information is processed in the form of ones and zeros, or bits. In the quantum well to replace them come qubits. The current record number of workers in the form of qubits entangled ions (charged atoms) is 20, so the thousands of qubits that simultaneously operate in the cloud, will represent a major achievement. Another area that will benefit from this breakthrough, - metrology, the science of high-precision measurements. When the two particles or systems formed entanglement measurements made on one half, disclose another. This makes it possible to measure the parameters with greater sensitivity than would be possible otherwise. Entanglement used in this way, can improve the accuracy of atomic clocks and global positioning system (GPS), or assist in the production of more sensitive detectors for MRI machines, for example.
Understanding and use of quantum effects such as entanglement, will allow to create new technology opportunities that will surpass our present. Therefore, much attention is given to research in the field of quantum technology and why it is so important any breakthroughs in this area.