Modern humans emerged from Africa at 50,000 years earlier than previously thought
Israeli archaeologists have discovered the oldest remains of Homo sapiens, dating from the era from 194 to 177 thousand years ago. According to an article published in the journal Science, scientists find causes to push the release of modern humans out of Africa about 50,000 years ago. Previously, the most ancient human remains outside Africa dated to a period of 90-120 thousand years ago.
Most modern scholars agree with the hypothesis of an African origin of modern humans. According to this hypothesis, one subspecies sapiens emerged in Africa about 200-400 thousand years ago. In an age of 135 to 115 thousand years ago, modern humans have migrated from the continent. Other versions say that this migration occurred either through North Africa, either through Arabia. The exact causes of this migration science does not know, but, according to one of the assumptions could happen is due to the severe drought in the continent. Scientists believe that the first attempt was unsuccessful migration - the ancient people could either die or go back to the continent, but noted that recently, archaeologists found the remains of ancient settlers in South China. There, in the course of archaeological excavations skeletons were found, dating from the period between 120 and 80 years ago. Researchers believe that the second wave of migration began 75,000 years ago and could occur before or shortly after the eruption of a supervolcano Toba in Sumatra. At this time, the transition was successful - about 70 thousand years ago, explorers reached the South and South-East Asia. About 50 thousand years ago, people made it to Australia and 40 thousand years ago - to Europe. About 15 thousand years ago, people were in America.
In the journal Science article describes how an anthropologist Israel Hershkowitz of Tel Aviv University, and his colleagues from the US and eight other countries in 2002 found in Israeli cave Misliya the upper left part of the human jaw. The researchers analyzed the findings and determined the age by three methods: uranium-thorium method, thermoluminescence and electron spin resonance dating. Study, researchers conducted in three different laboratories. All were obtained close dates: analysis showed age from 194 to 177 years. Keep your teeth in the jaw indicated to scientists that it might belong to a person Homo sapiens - noted the morphology and structure of teeth from the teeth of Neanderthals and other subspecies of humans. The authors also point out that not far from the cave Mislii scientists have found stone tools that had the characteristics of Levallois technique, which appeared in the Middle Paleolithic. These tools are manufactured as sapiens and Neanderthals. Similar weapons scientists found in Paleolithic sites of sapiens in North, East and South Africa. This allowed the scientists to suggest that guns in Levallois Levante too, can be attributed to the arrival of people there. Also, the new findings support recent genetic data, according to which sapiens and Neanderthal interbreeding may have occurred before 200 thousand years ago.
"An earlier migration from Africa suggests that cultural and genetic exchanges with the local ancient populations occurred earlier than previously thought. This is consistent with recent genetic evidence for earlier human migration out of Africa "- said Rolf Kam, a paleoanthropologist from Binghamton University (USA).