Scientists have created a revolutionary new tool for editing genes
The famous technology CRISPR / Cas9, which allows you to make changes in the genome of higher organisms, including humans, has become a real breakthrough in genetics and opened to scientists almost endless possibilities for experimentation. It was on her stake in the hope of one day conquer diseases such as cancer, HIV, hereditary genetic diseases and many others. However, the CRISPR / Cas9 is not a perfect tool, so scientists are constantly trying to find him a decent alternative. It seems that scientists from the Cambridge Institute Brody finally succeeded.
The first experiments on gene editing in the genomes of living things date from the beginning of the XX century, starting with the opening of the mechanism of induced mutagenesis. By the middle of the XX century, scientists were able to fairly accurately modify the genes of bacteria, but in order to make such changes in a person's genes, it took a few more decades. CRISPR / Cas9 system, which was originally opened in the late 80s as a defense mechanism against viruses bacteria, has indeed become something of a revolution in science. It is based on protein CAS, inside genetic sequences. Currently, this technology is widely used in many experiments with editing the genome of a variety of organisms, including human. New editing tool genome created in Cambridge, in contrast to the CRISPR / Cas9, does not cut the chain of nucleotides, and the dot replaces it entirely everything you need, without disrupting the overall structure. This is done using a special enzyme, allowing to change the individual pairs of bases in DNA. Such precision in gene editing for the foreseeable future, will allow scientists to defeat a variety of genetic diseases such as sickle cell anemia over and cystic fibrosis.
A revolutionary technique, scientists have already tried on a number of bacteria. These modified DNA dot gene responsible for resistance to a particular antibiotic. Then the bacteria deprived of every kind of protection from the drug and began to die. But that scientists have decided not to stop and reverse the experiment carried out by returning the old bacteria protection. The experiment also ended with success. A team of researchers believe that the editing tools are much more flexible and efficient than the CRISPR / Cas9, so over time it will push the outdated system in the background. The research results were published in the journal Nature.