10 impossible things, made possible by modern physics
In the wonderful world of physics is impossible, though not immediately, but still it is possible. But recently, scientists were able to achieve really supernevozmozhnyh things. Science progresses. One only pasta monster knows what else awaits us in its most secret depths. Today analyze ten of unreal things, states and objects, made possible by modern physics.
The incredibly low temperatures
In the past, scientists could not cool the objects below the threshold of the so-called "quantum limit". To something cool to such a state, it is necessary to use a laser with a very slowly moving atoms and suppress the vibration they create fuel.
However, physicists have found the right solution. They created ultrakroshechny aluminum vibrating drum and able to cool it to 360 mkKelvinov, which is 10 000 times lower than the temperature in the depths of outer space.
Drum diameter of only 20 microns (diameter of a human hair - 40-50 microns). Cool it to such extremely low temperatures it was possible thanks to the new technology of the so-called "squeezed light" in which all the particles have the same direction. This eliminates the vibrations that produce heat in the laser. Despite the fact that the drum is cooled to the lowest possible temperature, it is not the coldest form of matter. This title belongs to the Bose - Einstein condensates. But even in this case, achieving an important role. So once this method and technology can find its application for the creation of ultra-fast electronics, as well as help in understanding the strange behavior of the material of the quantum world, approaching in their properties to the physical limits.
The brightest light
The light of the sun blindingly bright. Now imagine the light of a billion Suns. It was his newly created physics laboratory, in fact having created the most brilliant artificial light in the world, which also behaves very unpredictable ways. It changes the appearance of the objects. However, the human eye is not available, so it remains to believe in the word of physicists.
Molecular black hole
A group of physicists has recently set up something that behaves like a black hole. To do this, they took the world's most powerful X-ray laser Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and pushed by means of it the molecule of iodomethane and iodobenzene. Initially, it was expected that the majority of the laser pulse will knock electrons from orbit iodine atoms, instead leaving vacuum. In experiments with weaker lasers this void, usually immediately filled with electrons from the outermost atomic orbits boundaries. When LCLS laser hit the expected process starts, but then followed by a truly amazing phenomenon. Having such a level of excitation, iodine atom started literally eat electrons from nearby are hydrogen and carbon atoms. From the outside it seemed a tiny black hole within the molecule.
Subsequent laser pulses are knocked drawn by an electron, but void delayed the more and more. The cycle is repeated until, until the entire molecule does not explode. Interestingly, an iodine atom molecule was the only one that shows similar behavior. Since it is on the average more than others, it is capable to absorb a huge amount of X-ray energy and electrons lose their original. This loss leaves atom with a strong positive charge, with which it attracts electrons from other, smaller atoms.
He was called "the holy grail of physics of high pressures", but until recently no one could succeed in getting it. The possibility of converting hydrogen into the metal was first announced in 1935. Physicists at the time suggested that such a transformation can be called up with the very strong pressure. The problem is that such pressure technology of the time could not create. In 2017, the American team of physicists has decided to return to the old idea, but used a different approach. The experiment was conducted inside a special device, which is called diamond vise. Produced by these vices pressure produced by two synthetic diamonds, arranged on both sides of the press. Thanks to this device achieved incredible pressure: over 71, 7 million pounds per square inch. Even pressure in the center of the earth below.
The computer chip with the brain cells of
If you breathe life into the electronics, the light one day be able to replace electricity. Physicists realized the amazing potential of the world decades ago, when it became clear that the light waves are able to move parallel to each other and thus perform many simultaneous tasks. Our electronics relies on transistors, the opening and closing movement path for electricity. This scheme imposes many limitations. Recently, however, scientists have created an amazing invention - the computer chip to simulate the human brain. Through the use of interacting light beams that act as neurons in the living brain, the chip is able to do very quickly, "to think".
Previously, scientists could also create a simple artificial neural networks, but such equipment took several laboratory tables. Create something that has the same effectiveness, but it is much smaller, it was considered impossible. And yet it did. chip size, based on the silicon used, is only a few millimeters. And he spends computing operations using 16 integrated neurons. Here's how. Is supplied to the chip laser light which is split into several beams, each of which contains a number or information signal varies according to the brightness level. The intensity of the laser output provides an answer to a numerical problem or any information to that required to provide a solution.
Impossible form of matter
There is a type of matter called "superfluid solid." And in fact, this matter is not as daunting as it may seem from the title. The fact that this very fanciful form of matter has a crystal structure characteristic of solids, but at the same time is a liquid. This paradox has long remained unfulfilled. However, in 2016, two independent groups of scientists (the American and Swiss) created matter, which can rightly be attributed to the properties of superfluid solid. What is interesting, both teams used different approaches in its creation.
Swiss created Bose - Einstein condensate (the coldest known fabrics), cooled to extremely low temperatures rubidium gas. Then, the condensate was placed in a two-chamber installation, in each chamber which small aimed at each other's mirror were installed. In the chamber laser beams were sent, which run transformation. The gas particles in response to the laser crystal structure built solid, but in general matter retained its flow properties.
Americans have received such a hybrid matter on the basis of a condensate of sodium atoms, which also strongly cooled and was exposed to the laser. Recent used to shift until the density of atoms in the crystal structure of a liquid.
The liquid negative mass
In 2017, physicists have created a really cool thing: a new form of matter, which moves in the direction of force, it repulsive. Although it's not exactly a boomerang, but this matter is what can be called a negative mass. On the positive mass clear: you give the acceleration of some object, and it starts to move in the direction in which this acceleration has been transferred. However, scientists have created a liquid that works differently than anything in the physical world. When it is pushed, it accelerates sources is accelerating. Again, to help in this matter came to Bose - Einstein, the role of which were cooled to extremely low temperatures atoms of rubidium. Thus, scientists have superfluid liquid with normal weight. Then they are squeezed atoms with lasers. Then a second set of lasers are very excited atoms, so much so that they have changed their backs. When the atoms were released from the clutches of the laser, the normal liquid reaction would be the desire to move from the center of fixation, that can actually be interpreted as a shot put. However superfluid liquid from the rubidium atoms which impart sufficient acceleration has remained in its place, thereby demonstrating a negative mass upon release from the grip of the laser.
When Frank Wilczek, a Nobel laureate, first proposed the idea of crystals of time, it seemed insane. Especially in the portion which was explained that these crystals can possess movement, while remaining quiescent, i.e. exhibiting lower energy level of the matter. It seemed impossible, since movement requires energy, and in turn, the theory states that in such crystals is practically no energy. Wilczek believed that perpetual motion can be achieved by changing the ground state atoms of the crystal in a stationary frequency. It came in contrast to the known laws of physics, but in 2017, after 5 years from the moment when it is offered Wilczek, physicists have found a way to do it. As a result, at Harvard University have created a time crystal, where the nitrogen impurities "spun" in diamonds.
Bragg mirror does not have a high reflectivity and is composed of 1000-2000 atoms. But it is able to reflect light, which makes it useful where it is necessary the use of tiny mirrors, for example, in advanced electronics. The shape of this mirror is not quite common. Its atoms suspended in vacuo and resemble the a chain of beads. In 2011, the German team of scientists was able to create a Bragg mirror, which possessed at that time the highest level of reflection (about 80 percent). To this end, scientists combined the 10 million atoms in a lattice structure. However, later research teams from Denmark and France have found a way to significantly reduce the number of necessary atoms, but at the same time maintain high reflectivity efficiency. Instead of combining dense around each other, we placed along atoms microscopic optical fiber. With proper placement of the necessary conditions arise - light wave is reflected directly back to the point of its origin. When transferring some photons of light are pulled outside the fiber and collide with atoms. Baffle effectiveness demonstrated Danish and French commands is very different and is about 10 and 75 percent respectively. However, in both cases, the light returns (ie reflected) to the point of its origin.
Besides advantages in the development of promising technologies, such mirrors may be useful in quantum devices, since the atoms are additionally used for the light field interacting with each other.
The two-dimensional magnet
Physicists have tried to create a dimensional magnet with the 1970s, but always failed. This 2D-magnet should retain their magnetic properties, even after being divided to a state in which it becomes a two-dimensional or layer thickness of one atom. Scientists have even began to doubt that such a thing is possible at all.
However, in June 2017 physics using chromium triiodide, finally able to create a dimensional magnet. The connection was very interesting from several sides. Its layered crystal structure is excellent for the restriction, and, moreover, its electrons have a spin direction desired. These important properties allow chromium triiodide retain magnetic properties even after its crystal structure is reduced to a thickness of the last atomic layers. The world's first 2D-magnet able to receive at a relatively high temperature -228 degrees Celsius. Its magnetic properties cease to operate at room temperature because it destroys oxygen. However, the experiments continue.