10 amazing methods of criminology future
For police, prosecutors, forensic technology and new forensic almost certainly revolutionize the future of forensic science, by making the capture of criminals and prevention more effective. These technologies can help investigators in the affairs of missing persons, "the deaf" to things that can not be resolved for years, cases of sexual violence and murder. Although the potential danger associated with privacy, causes differences in the use of these technologies, it is clear that the ten leading innovations in forensic criminology and the future will also bring great benefits to the authorities, victims, victims' families and society as a whole.
face recognition algorithm
Smartphones and other mobile devices equipped with software face recognition software, can already identify people in ideal conditions, such as having a photo in good quality in the database, which can be compared in real time, but such conditions are often simply do not exist. In addition, the faces of people change with time, and putting on a pair of sunglasses or growing a beard can prevent great technologies. Video, offering a series of shots, could, in theory, provide a better chance for the forensic identification of the subject, but it does not always happen. Boston Marathon bombing showed that when tested three face recognition systems is only one identified Johar Tsarnaeva, and none knew Tsarnaeva Tamerlane, who put on his glasses.
In Animetrics may be the answer to these questions. The company has developed software that converts 2D-images in simulated 3D-model of a human face in about a second, and software users can change the position or expression of a suspect. The resulting image can be analyzed all the algorithms of facial recognition. A fairly powerful laptop picture can be compared with a million people. At smartphones capacity will be less and the efficiency of the post. Experts believe that smartphones restrictions will be removed over time through the use of cloud-based algorithms. Then this technology will be in the hand of the police, who will be able to instantly identify the suspects.
The analysis of fingerprints
Although computers accelerate search a fingerprint database for similarities with those obtained at the crime scene, it is the analyst makes a final conclusion as to whether the mark to the right degree. If a suitable fingerprint in the database is not, the comparison can not be carried out, in principle, regardless of the quality fingerprint from the crime scene. But even if there is no match or two analysts converge in opinion, the fingerprint will have probative value.
Annemieke van Dam from the Academic Medical Center at the University of Amsterdam said that fingerprints are composed, in particular, of "the protein and fat secreted by our skin", which "might reveal a lot of information about the person who left them", including diet. In the future, predicts Van Dam, fingerprints will even be able to determine whether their owner is a meat-eater or vegetarian.
Other researchers have found that fingerprints can also indicate whether the bearer to wear a condom, and if so, what manufacturer. Van Dam is confident that such an analysis of fingerprints will be commonplace in the future. But that's not all. In the future, DNA fingerprints will enable a "genetic profile" person of the suspect, on the basis of which criminologists able to recreate his physical appearance.
Forecast eye color and hair
The judicial procedure known as phenotyping, it allows researchers to predict the color of hair and eyes of the suspect. This means that the police not necessarily rely on human DNA profile that is already stored in the database. Using 24 DNA variants that predict eye and hair colors and six genetic markers, HirisPlex system can predict the presence of blond hair from 69, 5% accuracy shatenovyh - 78, 5%, red - 80%, black - 87, 5%. This system can also differentiate between the brown-eyed dark-haired people of European and non-European origin with 86 percent accuracy. Tests show that the geographic ancestry does not affect the results. Although this tool is not yet widely used, it is likely to become an important tool for forensics in the near future.
variety of microscopic organisms living on our skin. In the future, these communities of microorganisms, known as the microbiome will help in apprehending criminals. Apart from the fact that the microbiome are superior in number twenty times our cells, there are no two people have the same microbiome, and these communities remain stable for a long time, except that in addition to sexual intercourse.
Although pubic hair recovered from suspected sexual assault, can not contain the roots, which is the DNA of the suspect site, microbiome in the hair can help convict him. Microbial DNA is different in men and women, as different microbial communities live in the pubic hair of men and women. And because these communities are unique to each individual, they determine the involvement in the crime. After sex Microbiome both men and women are transmitted from one party to another, making stable microbial community usually more similar to one another. This indicates that between a man and a woman held intercourse.
Although this advanced technology is not yet ready for use in the courtroom, because you first need to bring it up to "low false positive and false negative rates," the scientists predict that its use in the condemnation of the perpetrators of sexual violence, will soon become commonplace. And to provide investigators and prosecutors effective new tool to combat sexual violence.
The comparison of tattoos
Using a database of low-quality images of tattoos photographed by security cameras, camouflage, which he put on the attackers, as well as the excessive use of keywords for search the data made it difficult to investigate the crime. TattooID, a new computer program, has improved the situation.
This software is effective because identifies key moments ( "basic common points") in samples of tattoos from the database and video surveillance photos of the suspect or the police in the same way as other programs compared to fingerprint images for their selection. The program can also identify gang members, who often wear the same tattoos.
In the future, morphometry (measurement of body shapes) may be used to identify the skeletal remains of missing children, which today is very difficult to make the conventional force criminologists. The breakthrough came recently when scientists realized that the "faces of the children acquire the form that will have them later, much earlier than we thought," says Professor Ann Ross from the Department of Anthropology, University of North Carolina.
skull shape allows anthropologists to distinguish between different geographical populations. Now these scientists will be able to apply this procedure to younger people. In one case, Ross was able to identify the Mesoamerican origin of the remains of a boy of ten with the help of facial reconstruction. Prior to this breakthrough, it was believed that it is possible to identify only the skeletal remains of people 18 years and older.
The virtual autopsy
According to the religious, personal or other reasons, the wife in the family sometimes do not want to carry out an autopsy, the autopsy has killed her lover, even if this procedure could provide the information needed to capture the elusive killer. Although in such cases the court often ignores the decision of the family members, such decisions are extremely difficult they are perceived.
In the future, it may no longer be required to carry out physical autopsy, because the virtual will become possible. They will neither harm the body, nor interfere with legal expertise. They will use three-dimensional models. Currently, this procedure is not widely used, because it is quite expensive, but it is expected that its cost will decrease as the virtual autopsy will be carried out more often in the future. Virtual autopsy have an additional advantage in that they will be available immediately after the execution.
For example, in the case of three-dimensional images of the virtual bite opening can be compared with the jaw and dental records of a suspect (if they exist) that will help prosecutors to better understand injury victims. Some believe the virtual autopsy "gold standard forensic future."
Palynology, the study of pollen, has become one of the newest disciplines added to the growing field of forensic science. Pollen is everywhere, where there are flowering plants, including deserts and caves, and flowers bloom at different times. These two factors determine the particular "signature" of the pollen grains, making them biomarkers associated with a particular time and place.
The new method of identification of pollen lead to the use of palynology to solve crimes that might otherwise remain undiscovered. Although pollen has been used to determine where the original people were killed, buried in mass graves in Bosnia, and allowed to bind the robber with his crime in New Zealand until its study is not widespread in criminology. It may be useful when searching for missing persons and in the drafting history of the offender travels. However, this procedure is limited by the fact that the world is not so much palynologists and colors very much. The use of bar coding and DNA sequencing, though expensive, may improve the accuracy of identifying a specific type of pollen. It is likely that the biomarkers of pollen will be widely used in forensic science of the future.
The two parts of a motor vehicle - infotainment and telematics systems - may be a boon for criminologists. The first system allows the driver or passengers to connect their smart phones using Bluetooth, or play music. The second system interacts with websites.
When drivers and passengers use their smartphones in the car, their machines store data from the device even after disconnection of infotainment systems: telephone calls, contacts, SMS-messages - all synchronized with the machine. If the connection is made via a cable, saved file systems, file names, timestamps and other metadata.
Thanks to 70 interconnected electronic control units scattered throughout the vehicle, collect and store information about where and when the car door is opened, whether in the cushions and seat belts manner taillights. They also control the braking and acceleration. Both now and in the future this information may provide valuable forensic evidence against the perpetrators of the crime. It will show where and when the car was going, what corresponded and when to call the passengers, which sites are visited, when the door opened, when broken up and slowed down. In the heat of the chase the attacker transport can even be controlled remotely.
Portable police laboratory
According to the court Dr Peter Massey, "the purpose of a forensic medical examination is to roll out the lab at the crime scene." Portable forensic laboratories will remove the need to send samples and data to remote locations. Research results will be instantaneous.
A number of new methods to help facilitate this new wave of the field of criminology. For example, Raman spectroscopy allows researchers in the field to determine whether a suspicious powder explosive, and not to use the substance for the destruction of such important things, along with potential evidence. The necessary to use a large heavy equipment for the identification of drugs using different gases, liquids and solids, but now infrared spectroscopy The Fourier transform (FTIR) can accomplish the same task in less time to apply such materials without the need for many years forensic laboratories.
"Hand-held electronic sniffer" can replace dogs trained to find drugs, and "manual detectors" can replace alcohol testers. Scanners near-infrared light are visualized human veins, identifying a potential intruder. Transportable forensic laboratories may also be equipped with devices that can exchange data with government data bases for direct comparison and collation data.
In some countries, these technologies are already being used. But they will in the future be used more and more. The crime scene is becoming a laboratory.