Supermassive black holes in the universe can be twice as large than previously thought
The new discovery of astronomers has the potential to double the number of supermassive black holes in the universe. Science has long been thought that supermassive black holes are usually available only in the centers of large galaxies like our Milky Way, but the new study results support the notion that these objects can exist in the centers of dwarf galaxies.
The study began three years ago when astronomers from the University of Utah (USA) have discovered a black hole, which is located in the center of an ultra-compact dwarf galaxy M60-UCD1. However, recently the same team of scientists has found two more dwarf galaxies with supermassive black holes at their centers, which tends to suggest that such a relationship - a phenomenon and not so rare as previously predicted. Weight to this assumption adds the fact that in the visible universe may be about 7 trillion dwarf galaxies, so here it is difficult to talk about some ordinary luck. Moreover, a new study has shown that, despite its size, dwarf galaxies contain black holes are capable of measuring even more than that, what is the center of our Milky Way.
"It just can not fail to impress. The size of these ultra-compact galaxies is only 0, 1 percent of the size of our Milky Way, yet they somehow settle black holes are larger than the hole in the center of our galaxy, "- said lead researcher Chris Ahn.
For clarity, I recommend you watch the video below, which refers to how big can a black hole and what weight they are able to enjoy.
When astronomers began to detect ultra-compact dwarf galaxies in the 90s, they just interested in one very strange detail - the mass of these galaxies has nothing to do with the weight of all available in these stars. As part of further research it was made the assumption that this extra weight can create supermassive black holes.
"We still do not fully understand how galaxies form and evolve. Available also in their center of a black hole can tell us about how the galaxy between them collide and merge, "- said Antonov.
Using adaptive optics, which allows better observe the galaxies, the researchers measured the two ultra-compact galaxies: VUCD3 and M59cO. It was found that the mass of the black hole VUCD3 galaxy is 13 percent of the total weight of the galaxies. The share of the black hole M59cO galaxies, in turn, accounts for 18 percent of the total mass of its galaxy. Scientists is very surprising, since these figures were much higher than those peculiar to the black hole of the Milky Way, whose mass is slightly less than 0, 1 percent of the total mass of the galaxy. In addition, the observations have called into question the assumption that the observed objects are actually not dwarf galaxies, but are massive star clusters consisting of hundreds of thousands of stars that appeared in the same time. Now, scientists believe that these dwarf galaxies were once larger, but at one time faced with an even more massive galaxies, break them apart by force of its gravity.
"We know that the galaxies eventually collide and merge. This is one of the essential features of the development of all the galaxies in the universe. For example, our own Milky Way right now, as I say this, too, devours nearby dwarf galaxies, and after some time will face a more massive Andromeda Galaxy ", - says one of the researchers, Anil Seth.
"Our overall picture of how galaxies form, based on the fact that small galaxies eventually absorbed by larger ones. But the details in this picture were incomplete. Observation of the ultra-compact galaxies, in turn, allows us to more clearly understand the direct development of galaxies and found that these objects could be in the past. "
The output from this can be done is this: despite its compact size, dwarf galaxies may obscure answers to the big questions about the universe.