Astronomers have found a planet, contrary to the laws of planetary formation
According to new research, one huge and distant world, once described as "a planet that should not be where it is," seem to be formed, not where one would expect, and not from cosmic material that should have been to participate in it, and by which they are born almost all the known world.
The anomalous object, called HD 106906b, is a very young planet located approximately 300 light years from Earth in the constellation of the Southern Cross. the planet was first discovered in 2013. Its uniqueness makes it, at what distance from the star it is - about 650 astronomical units, or 650 times more than the distance from Earth to the sun. This unique feature of the HD 106906b gives her the title of the world having the most distant orbit around a single sun-like star. At a complete revolution around its star planet takes about 1500 years.
However, the most interesting feature of HD 106906b is associated not with its huge orbit, and the fact that the planet is far beyond the outer reaches of outer planetary material (gas and dust, that is, the matter of which planets form) gathered around the star HD 106906. The our case protoplanetary disk is about 10 times closer to the star than the planet itself is HD 106906b, which in turn causes astronomers to think about how she could do in such a case form.
HD 106906 system (black circle marked by the star) and its protoplanetary disk (bottom left) and the planet HD 106906b (top right)
"Our current theory of planetary formation does not take into account the possibility of arranging for the world outside the limits of the planetary disk" - explains astrophysicist Smadar Naoz University of California at Los Angeles.
Naoz and her team currently are developing a computer model that could track the orbital path of the planet HD 106906b.
Since the first discovery of the planet, scientists are trying to explain how it was so far removed from the star HD 106906, since the vast majority of exoplanets tend to be located inside the planetary disk. For example, in our solar system all the planets are inside the boundaries of the Kuiper Belt, located beyond the orbit of Neptune and made up of dwarf planets, other small space objects, as well as the material remaining after the formation of the planets.
Previous studies of the planet HD 106906b pointed out that it could be formed within a protoplanetary disk once before gravitational force pushed it beyond the fact of their system, but according to Naoz and her team, a scenario was different.
According to the Carnegie Institute created in the computer model "algorithm superparticles collisions in the Kuiper belt and planetary drives" (SMACK), the planet is likely to actually formed behind the outer limits of its protoplanetary disk. The computer model, which entered known about the HD 106906 system, the data showed that there was a planet HD 106906b in the protoplanetary disk boundaries, it would affect the entire structure of the disc.
For scientists, it is still unknown whether the system HD 106906 other planets, but the computer model showed that the elliptical shape of the protoplanetary disk system indicates only the relationship with the planet HD 106906b.
"With the help of computer simulation, we were able to recreate a certain form HD 106906 system drive without the addition of other planets. However, according to earlier assumptions, the system must be other planets to drive acquired such form, "- says researcher Eric Nesvold of the Carnegie Institution.
As mentioned above, the model also shows that the planet HD 106906b, likely formed outside of the disc. If the planet was initially formed within the boundaries of the disc, after its gravitational garbage she'd pulled over a portion of the disc and the latter would have a different form.
At the moment, scientists still can not accurately tell you how out of gas and the system of dust, of which, as a rule, formed the majority of the other planets in other systems, there was HD 106906b planet, and yet scientists have managed at least a little, but narrow the history of its origin. If in the future we will be able to find a similar nature on the planet HD 106906b, the computer model SMACK can tell you more about how such planets can form.
"Other protoplanetary disks, too, are likely to have their forms according to the gravitational influences exerted on them giant planets belonging to these systems," - says Nesvold. - "My computer model can help in the reconstruction and visualization of the features that led to the different forms of protoplanetary disks. In the future it will help us to better understand the processes of evolution of planetary systems. "