Is it ethical to resurrect dead actors on the screen with the help of computer technology?
In recent years, Hollywood has not silenced debate on the topic: Is it ethical to resurrect the dead on the big screen actors? Especially this question began to be discussed after the tragic death of actor Paul Walker, who crashed to death in the car and did not have time to finish shooting in the film "Fast and Furious 7". The producers were faced with a difficult choice: to abandon the film's release, or to replace an actor in the film on his double, drawn CG-artists. As a result, they are bent to the second embodiment, but the result is far from ideal. In the movie "Cast Away-one: Star Wars" a few actors have also been created by talented specialists Industrial Light and Magic studio. But whether such an approach is correct in terms of ethics?
Many Hollywood actors believe that this approach is correct. But only in the case where simply can not do without the resurrection of the actor. It so happens that writers create such a story, which is critical to show the audience a certain character, and if the actor who played him in the previous films, has died for one reason or another, kinotvortsam there is nothing left but to resort to modern technology and special effects. Of course, all this is done only with the permission of the closest relatives of the actor. They should give the official permission to use the image of the person in the next picture. In most cases, the family even receive royalties for the fact that their deceased relative reappears on the screen.
The examples are not far to seek. Resurrect dead actors not only in expensive Hollywood blockbusters, but even in some advertising. Recall at least the advertising Volkswagen video, shot in the style of one of the scenes of the cult film "Singin 'in the Rain" (1952). Resurrected actor Gene Kelly, who died in 1996, like in his best years dancing modern dance around the new model Golf. You can watch the video below. Of course, the quality of "tapping" the face of the actor leaves much to be desired, but this is a prime example of that even in advertising technology resurrection of the dead actors actively used today.
Another striking example of the appearance of the famous actress who died in the advertisement is a video touting Galaxy chocolate. In it we can see a great Audrey Hepburn, who left this world in 1993 at the age of 63 years. Permission to use the image of her sons gave Audrey, who received a substantial fee for it. Computer image of the actress in advertising turned out pretty scary, because it is in such moments our brain is faced with the so-called effect of "uncanny valley", when he is on a subconscious level, no matter how perfect computer graphics, understands that no living person in front of him, but only its artificial counterpart. This is a problem for decades fighting experts in animation and character modeling of 3D-models. But 100% to win this problem has not yet managed to anyone. Our brains do not just spend it.
Advertising revived on the screen of the great actor John Wayne, who has appeared in several commercials Coors Light beer. By the way, his image in the ad looked much more plausible than the aforementioned Audrey Hepburn. For the use of the image of the actor breweries transferred a substantial sum to the Foundation Cancer Research's John Wayne. So we can say that the project is at least brought to science and health.
Another advertising resurrected on-screen image of the famous actor Bruce Lee. I made this video company Johnnie Walker, known for the production of whiskey. And again, "uncanny valley" literally oozes from the screen.
However, sometimes images of the actors were used without the consent of all members of their family to do so. For example, one advertising vacuum cleaners used appearance actor Fred Astaire, because this idea endorsed by his widow, for which, of course, get a decent fee. But when you find that in the end I saw a video of the actor's daughter from his previous wife, she was horrified. But do this she did she could not, because the advertisers on their hands was a signed contract.
We often see the characters on the screen, have long left this world. And it is not necessary to create them using computer graphics. In the famous movie "Forrest Gump" actor Tom Hanks character appears on the screen in the company of several of the late US president. This was done by means of a complex installation of archive old records and new footage, but it looked still quite plausible. A little later, director Robert Zemeckis has once again resorted to this method of installation, crashed frames with President Bill Clinton in his new film "Contact". By the way, Bill Clinton became very angry to learn that his image without permission used in the movie. But Zemeckis parried his indignation at the fact that the president - it's still a public figure, and the use of his image in the works of art can not escape.
In the recent movie "Cast Away-one: Star Wars," apart from a few cameo, which I will not mention, so as not to spoil the film to those who have not seen, artists Industrial Light and Magic studio had to revive the on-screen character named Moff Tarkin, played by actor Peter Cushing, who died in 1994. This hero was crucial to the history tells viewers, so digital artists and animators simply had no other choice but to resort to the latest know-Disney company in the field of computer characters. Despite the fact that a team of highly skilled professionals has done a great job, we can not say that the character escape "uncanny valley effect" and received a 100% believable. He is still out of the general picture on the background of live actors, and the audience is well aware. So far, the use of images of dead actors in films and advertising is still quite slippery topic. And the quality of the realization of these same images are still far from ideal, and rather is a kind of subconscious rejection than delight the viewer. If you think about it, the filmmakers somehow will resort to high technology from time to time. For example, yesterday died actress Carrie Fisher, who plays Princess Leia in the film series "Star Wars." Given that her character was supposed to appear in subsequent films, which currently takes Disney studio, most likely we will see it on the screen CG-image. But this, of course, only guesses. What do you think, dear readers, is this correct: use the image of the actor after his death?