Determination of the cardinal points and the time of the shadow
On a sunny day to determine the points of the compass can be fairly accurately by the shadows of some - any linear object such as a stick, pole, or from himself. The line connecting the tip of shadow marks made within a short period of time, will indicate the direction about the east and west. Another way would require several hours of waiting, but it is more accurate.
⚠ fastest way
✏ Plug the pole into the ground on a flat, free from vegetation of the site on which the shadow is visible clearly. The staff does not have to stand upright. The slope of it to get the best shade (size and direction) does not affect the accuracy of this method.
✏ Note end of the shade a little peg, stick, stones, branches, own finger recess in the snow or in any other way. The first label will always show to the west.
Wait until the end of the shadows will move a few centimeters.
With a length of one meter pole we have to wait 10-15 minutes. The more time passes, the more accurate the line direction and again mark the end of the shadow.
✏ Draw a straight line from the first mark to the second and extend it by about 30 cm per second mark. This line will be approximately oriented along the east-west axis. The higher the stick, the more accurate determination of the direction. ✏ Stand so that the first label is on your left, and the second - on the right, then you will look just to the north.
Define the other side of the world. To mark the direction on the ground (for the orientation of the other), draw a line intersecting the first in the form of a cross (+), and mark the points of the compass.
⚠ accurate way
It requires several hours of observation. To start monitoring is necessary before the sun rises to the zenith.
✏ Set stick or pole the same as in the first case, and the first end of the shadow mark.
✏ Pull the rope between the base of the stick and the first mark and, since the mark, draw a semicircle on the ground (clockwise in the northern hemisphere and clockwise - in the South).
✏ As soon as the sun will rise in the sky, and the day is approaching noon, the shadow will shrink away from the incised on the ground arc. Moving to the east. In the afternoon the sun will be the slope to the west, the shadow begins to lengthen, and finally touches the arc on the ground. At this point, check the end of the shadow of the second label.
✏ Now connect the two marks line. To determine the direction north stand in the same manner as described above. ⚠ TIME DETERMINATION
✏ Move the pole to the east point of intersection of the lines - west and north - south and set it on the ground vertically. As anywhere in the world western part of the line corresponds to 6.00 hours, and the eastern part - 18.00.
✏ Now line NS becomes the meridian line. The shadow of the pole is like the hour hand on the sundial and using it you can determine the time. Depending on your location and time of year, or shadow can move clockwise or counterclockwise, but it does not interfere with the determination of time.
✏ Sundial clock are not in the usual sense. The duration of "hours" for a year on them varies, but usually it is assumed that 6.00 is always of the corresponding sunrise and 18.00 -. However, sunset sundial is quite suitable for the determination of the time in the absence of these hours or in order to properly put the clock.